'Half-cut' science: a qualitative examination of alcohol industry actors' use of peer-reviewed evidence in policy submissions on Minimum Unit Pricing

Dana Cullen, Katherine Smith, Jeffrey Collin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Aim: To assess the extent to which alcohol industry actors cited evidence in submissions to the Scottish Parliament Health and Sport Committee’s 2011 call for written evidence on the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill and to compare any citations of peer-reviewed evidence to original sources.
    Methods: All submissions to the consultation (n=128) were manually searched to identify those written by alcohol industry actors (n=25). The reference lists of all the alcohol industry submissions were reviewed and peer-reviewed sources were retrieved, read and assessed against their in-text citation within the alcohol industry submissions.
    Results: Although most industry submissions cited evidence of some sort, only 7 (28%) cited peer-reviewed evidence. Comparing the total number of citations to peer-reviewed evidence (n=17) to original sources demonstrates that 82% were questionably cited. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the majority of references to peer-reviewed evidence in this sample of alcohol industry policy submissions were misleading with examples of citations being presented as supportive of arguments that the original evidence source specifically argued against. This suggests that even the depiction of peer-reviewed evidence within alcohol industry policy submissions needs to be treated with caution.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages49-66
    Number of pages18
    JournalEvidence and Policy
    Volume15
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2017

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    pricing
    Industry
    alcohol
    Alcohols
    Costs and Cost Analysis
    examination
    industry
    science
    evidence
    Scotland
    Sports
    Referral and Consultation
    parliament
    Health
    health

    Keywords

    • alcohol control policy
    • alcohol industry and eviden
    • minimum unit pricing
    • health policy

    Cite this

    @article{49fd06ee46de422db55f1ae95441033b,
    title = "'Half-cut' science: a qualitative examination of alcohol industry actors' use of peer-reviewed evidence in policy submissions on Minimum Unit Pricing",
    abstract = "Aim: To assess the extent to which alcohol industry actors cited evidence in submissions to the Scottish Parliament Health and Sport Committee’s 2011 call for written evidence on the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill and to compare any citations of peer-reviewed evidence to original sources. Methods: All submissions to the consultation (n=128) were manually searched to identify those written by alcohol industry actors (n=25). The reference lists of all the alcohol industry submissions were reviewed and peer-reviewed sources were retrieved, read and assessed against their in-text citation within the alcohol industry submissions. Results: Although most industry submissions cited evidence of some sort, only 7 (28{\%}) cited peer-reviewed evidence. Comparing the total number of citations to peer-reviewed evidence (n=17) to original sources demonstrates that 82{\%} were questionably cited. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the majority of references to peer-reviewed evidence in this sample of alcohol industry policy submissions were misleading with examples of citations being presented as supportive of arguments that the original evidence source specifically argued against. This suggests that even the depiction of peer-reviewed evidence within alcohol industry policy submissions needs to be treated with caution.",
    keywords = "alcohol control policy, alcohol industry and eviden, minimum unit pricing, health policy",
    author = "Dana Cullen and Katherine Smith and Jeffrey Collin",
    note = "Alavaikko, M, {\"O}sterberg, E, 2000, The influence of economic interests on alcohol control policy: A case study from Finland, Addiction, 95, 12, 4, S565–S579 Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill 2012 (asp 4), (SP Bill 4A, 2011–2012), Edinburgh: The Stationery Office Anderson, R, Johnson, R, 1999, Antitrust and sales-below-cost laws: The case of retail gasoline, Review of Industrial Organization, 14, 3, 189–204 Andreasson, S, Holder, H, Norstrom, T, {\"O}sterberg, E, Rossow, I, 2006, Estimates of harm associated with changes in Swedish alcohol policy: Results from past and present estimates, Addiction, 101, 8, 1096–1105 Babor, T, Caetano, R, Casswell, S, Edwards G, Giesbrecht, N, Graham, K, Grube, J, Hill, L, Holder, H, Homel, R, Livingston, M, {\"O}sterberg, E, Jurgen, R, Room, R, Rossow, I, 2010 Alcohol: No ordinary commodity: Research and public policy (2nd edn), London: Oxford University Press Barnes, D, Bero, L, 1996, Industry-funded research and conflict of interest: An analysis of research sponsored by the tobacco industry through the Center for Indoor Air Research, Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21, 3, 515–42 Baumberg, B, Anderson, P, 2008, Health, alcohol and EU law: Understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies, European Journal of Public Health, 18, 4, 392–8 Bornmann, L, Daniel, H, 2010, The usefulness of peer review for selecting articles for publication: A utility analysis taking as an example a high-impact journal, PLoS One, 5, 6, e11344 Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) (2011) Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN14_Campaign_for_Real_Ale_(CAMRA).pdf Casswell, S, 2013, Vested interests in addiction research and policy: Why do we not see the corporate interests of the alcohol industry as clearly as we see those of the tobacco industry?, Addiction, 108, 4, 680–85 Casswell, S, Thararangsi, T, 2009, Reducing harm from alcohol: Call to action, The Lancet, 373, 9682, 2247–57 Collin, J, 2012, Tobacco control, global health policy and development: Towards policy coherence in global governance, Tobacco Control, 21, 2, 274–80 Diageo, 2011, Diageo response to the Health and Sport Committee’s call for evidence on the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/ S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/MIN27_Diageo.pdf Edrington Group, 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing)(Scotland) Bill, Response to the Health and Sport Committee’s call for written evidence from the Edrington Group, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN32_Edrington_Group.pdf Edwards, G, Anderson, P, Babor, T, Casswell, S, Ferrence, R, Giesbrecht, N, Godfrey, C, Holder, H, Lemmens, P, M{\"a}kel{\"a}, K, Midanik, L, Norstr{\"o}m, T, {\"O}sterberg, E, Romelsj{\"o}, A, Room, R, Simpura, J, Skog, O, 1995, Alcohol policy and the public good, London: Oxford University Press Freudenberg, N, 2014, Lethal but legal: Corporations, consumption and protecting public health, New York: Oxford University Press Gallet, C, 2007, The demand for alcohol: A meta-analysis of elasticities, Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 51, 2, 121–35 Goldacre, B, 2014, Bad pharma: How drug companies mislead doctors and harm patients, London: Fourth Estate Gornall, J, 2013, Doctors and the alcohol industry: An unhealthy mix? BMJ, 346, f1889 Hilton, S, Wood, K, Patterson, C, Katikireddi, S, 2014, Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?, Social Science & Medicine, 102, 157–64 Holden, C, Hawkins, B, McCambridge, J, 2012, Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study, BMC Public Health, 12, 1, 483 Holder, H, Giesbrecht, N, Horverak, O, Nordlund, S, Norstr{\"o}m, T, Olsson, O, {\"O}sterberg, E, Skog, O, 1995, Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership, Addiction, 90, 12, 1603–18 Information Services Division Scotland, 2014 Alcohol Related Hospital Statistics Scotland 2013/14, Edinburgh: ISD Scotland Publications IAS (Institute of Alcohol Studies) 2016 Factsheet: The alcohol industry, www.ias.org. uk/uploads/pdf/Factsheets/fsIndustry01042016.pdf Jahiel, R, Babor, T, 2007, Industrial epidemics, public health advocacy and the alcohol industry: Lessons from other fields, Addiction, 102, 9, 1335–9 Jarma, H, 2013, Attack on Australia: Tobacco industry challenges to plain packaging, Public Health Policy, 34, 3, 375–87 Jernigan, D, 2009, The global alcohol industry: An overview, Addiction, 104, 1, pp 6–12 Joosens, L, Raw, M, 2014, The tobacco control scale 2013 in Europe, Report from the Sixth European Conference on Tobacco and Health, Turkey, 26–29, www.europeancancerleagues.org/images/TobaccoControl/TCS_2013_ in_Europe_13-03-14_final_1.pdf Katikireddi, SV, Bond, L, Hilton, S, 2014, Changing policy framing as a deliberate strategy for public health advocacy: A qualitative policy case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol, Milbank Quarterly, 92, 2, 250–83 Katikireddi SV, Hilton, S, Bonell, C, Bond, L, 2014, Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: A qualitative study of the policy process, PLoS ONE, 9, 3, e91185 Katikireddi, SV, Hilton, S, 2015, How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews, Drugs, 22, 2, 125–34 Katikireddi, SV, Hilton, S, Bond, L, 2015, The role of the Sheffield model on the minimum unit pricing of alcohol debate: The importance of a rhetorical perspective, Evidence & Policy, 12, 4, 521–39 Kearns, C, Schmidt, L, Glantz, S, 2006, Sugar industry and coronary heart disease research: A historical analysis of internal industry documents, JAMA Internal Medicine, 176, 11, 1680–85 Leyland, A, Dundas, R, McLoone, P, Boddy FA, 2007, Cause-specific inequalities in mortality in Scotland: Two decades of change: A population-based study, BMC Public Health, 7, 1, 172 M{\"a}kel{\"a}, P, Bloomfield, K, Gustafsson, N, Huhtanen, P, Room, R, 2008, Changes in volume of drinking after changes in alcohol taxes and travellers’ allowances: Results from a panel study, Addiction, 103, 2, 181–91 McCambridge, J, Hawkins, B, Holden, C, 2013, Industry use of evidence to influence alcohol policy: A case study of submissions to the 2008 Scottish Government Consultation, PLOS Medicine, 10, 4, e1001431 Morris, J, 2015, Another step in Scottish alcohol MUP case: Alcohol policy UK, www.alcoholpolicy.net/2015/09/another-step-in-the-scottish-alcohol-mup-case. html#more Nordlund, S, 2007, The influence of EU alcohol policy on a non-EU Country, Substance Use, 12, 6, 405–18 Nutt, D, King, L, Phillips, L, 2010, Drug harms in the UK: A multicriteria decision analysis, The Lancet, 376, 9752, 1558–65 {\"O}sterberg, E, 1995, Do alcohol prices affect consumption and related problems?, in H Holder and G Edwards (eds) Alcohol and public policy: Evidence and issues, London: Oxford University Press, pp 145–63 Scottish Government, 2007, Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership, www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/Partnership Scottish Government, 2009, Changing Scotland’s relationship with alcohol: A framework for action, www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/262905/0078610.pdf Scottish Government, 2015a, Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership, www.gov.scot/Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/Partnership Scottish Government, 2015b, Health inequalities, www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/ Browse/Health/TrendHealthOutcome Scottish Government, 2015c, Comment on Minimum Unit Pricing, Scottish Government Newsroom, news.gov.scot/news/comment-on-minimum-unitpricing Scottish Government, 2017, Working with the alcohol industry, www.gov.scot/ Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/Partnership Scottish Grocer’s Federation (SGF) 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN70_Scottish_Grocers_Federation.pdf Scottish Parliament, 2015 1st Report, 2015 (Session 4): Report on Health Inequalities, SP Paper 637, www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/ CurrentCommittees/85035.aspx SPICE (Scottish Parliament Information Centre) 2012, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill: SPICE briefing, www.scottish.parliament.uk/ parliamentarybusiness/45707.aspx SGAIP (Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership) 2010, Working together to promote responsible drinking and tackle alcohol related harm: Progress report for 2009/10, www.gov.scot/Resource/0039/00398409.pdf SGAIP (Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership) 2014, Review of the partnership, http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0044/00449177.pdf Smith, R, 2006, The trouble with medical journals, London: Taylor and Francis Stuckler, D, McKee, M, Ebrahim, S, Basu, S, 2012, Manufacturing epidemics: The role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco, PLoS Med, 9, 6, e1001235 SWA (Scotch Whisky Association) 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN65_Scotch_Whisky_Association.pdf Voice of Young Science, 2012, Standing up for Science, 3, Peer review: The nuts and bolts, London: Sense About Science Wagenaar, A, Salois, M, Komro, K, 2009, Effects of beverage alcohol price and tax levels on drinking: A meta-analysis of 1003 estimates from 112 studies, Addiction, 104, 2, 179–90 Weller, A, 2001, Editorial peer review: Its strengths and weaknesses, Medford, NJ: Information Today Wine and Spirit Trade Association (WSTA) 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/ Inquiries/MIN93_Wine_and_Spirit_Trade_Association.pdf WHO (World Health Organization) 2010, The global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, Geneva: WHO Press WM Morrison Supermarkets, 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/MIN94_ Wm_Morrison_Supermarkets.pdf YHEC (York Health Economics Consortium) 2010, The societal cost of alcohol misuse in Scotland for 2007, Scottish Government Social Research, http://www. gov.scot/Resource/Doc/297819/0092744.pdf",
    year = "2017",
    month = "10",
    day = "10",
    doi = "10.1332/174426417X15071939491726",
    language = "English",
    volume = "15",
    pages = "49--66",
    journal = "Evidence and Policy",
    issn = "1744-2648",
    number = "1",

    }

    'Half-cut' science : a qualitative examination of alcohol industry actors' use of peer-reviewed evidence in policy submissions on Minimum Unit Pricing. / Cullen, Dana; Smith, Katherine; Collin, Jeffrey.

    In: Evidence and Policy, Vol. 15, No. 1, 10.10.2017, p. 49-66.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - 'Half-cut' science

    T2 - Evidence and Policy

    AU - Cullen, Dana

    AU - Smith, Katherine

    AU - Collin, Jeffrey

    N1 - Alavaikko, M, Österberg, E, 2000, The influence of economic interests on alcohol control policy: A case study from Finland, Addiction, 95, 12, 4, S565–S579 Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill 2012 (asp 4), (SP Bill 4A, 2011–2012), Edinburgh: The Stationery Office Anderson, R, Johnson, R, 1999, Antitrust and sales-below-cost laws: The case of retail gasoline, Review of Industrial Organization, 14, 3, 189–204 Andreasson, S, Holder, H, Norstrom, T, Österberg, E, Rossow, I, 2006, Estimates of harm associated with changes in Swedish alcohol policy: Results from past and present estimates, Addiction, 101, 8, 1096–1105 Babor, T, Caetano, R, Casswell, S, Edwards G, Giesbrecht, N, Graham, K, Grube, J, Hill, L, Holder, H, Homel, R, Livingston, M, Österberg, E, Jurgen, R, Room, R, Rossow, I, 2010 Alcohol: No ordinary commodity: Research and public policy (2nd edn), London: Oxford University Press Barnes, D, Bero, L, 1996, Industry-funded research and conflict of interest: An analysis of research sponsored by the tobacco industry through the Center for Indoor Air Research, Health Politics, Policy and Law, 21, 3, 515–42 Baumberg, B, Anderson, P, 2008, Health, alcohol and EU law: Understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies, European Journal of Public Health, 18, 4, 392–8 Bornmann, L, Daniel, H, 2010, The usefulness of peer review for selecting articles for publication: A utility analysis taking as an example a high-impact journal, PLoS One, 5, 6, e11344 Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) (2011) Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN14_Campaign_for_Real_Ale_(CAMRA).pdf Casswell, S, 2013, Vested interests in addiction research and policy: Why do we not see the corporate interests of the alcohol industry as clearly as we see those of the tobacco industry?, Addiction, 108, 4, 680–85 Casswell, S, Thararangsi, T, 2009, Reducing harm from alcohol: Call to action, The Lancet, 373, 9682, 2247–57 Collin, J, 2012, Tobacco control, global health policy and development: Towards policy coherence in global governance, Tobacco Control, 21, 2, 274–80 Diageo, 2011, Diageo response to the Health and Sport Committee’s call for evidence on the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/ S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/MIN27_Diageo.pdf Edrington Group, 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing)(Scotland) Bill, Response to the Health and Sport Committee’s call for written evidence from the Edrington Group, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN32_Edrington_Group.pdf Edwards, G, Anderson, P, Babor, T, Casswell, S, Ferrence, R, Giesbrecht, N, Godfrey, C, Holder, H, Lemmens, P, Mäkelä, K, Midanik, L, Norström, T, Österberg, E, Romelsjö, A, Room, R, Simpura, J, Skog, O, 1995, Alcohol policy and the public good, London: Oxford University Press Freudenberg, N, 2014, Lethal but legal: Corporations, consumption and protecting public health, New York: Oxford University Press Gallet, C, 2007, The demand for alcohol: A meta-analysis of elasticities, Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 51, 2, 121–35 Goldacre, B, 2014, Bad pharma: How drug companies mislead doctors and harm patients, London: Fourth Estate Gornall, J, 2013, Doctors and the alcohol industry: An unhealthy mix? BMJ, 346, f1889 Hilton, S, Wood, K, Patterson, C, Katikireddi, S, 2014, Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?, Social Science & Medicine, 102, 157–64 Holden, C, Hawkins, B, McCambridge, J, 2012, Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study, BMC Public Health, 12, 1, 483 Holder, H, Giesbrecht, N, Horverak, O, Nordlund, S, Norström, T, Olsson, O, Österberg, E, Skog, O, 1995, Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership, Addiction, 90, 12, 1603–18 Information Services Division Scotland, 2014 Alcohol Related Hospital Statistics Scotland 2013/14, Edinburgh: ISD Scotland Publications IAS (Institute of Alcohol Studies) 2016 Factsheet: The alcohol industry, www.ias.org. uk/uploads/pdf/Factsheets/fsIndustry01042016.pdf Jahiel, R, Babor, T, 2007, Industrial epidemics, public health advocacy and the alcohol industry: Lessons from other fields, Addiction, 102, 9, 1335–9 Jarma, H, 2013, Attack on Australia: Tobacco industry challenges to plain packaging, Public Health Policy, 34, 3, 375–87 Jernigan, D, 2009, The global alcohol industry: An overview, Addiction, 104, 1, pp 6–12 Joosens, L, Raw, M, 2014, The tobacco control scale 2013 in Europe, Report from the Sixth European Conference on Tobacco and Health, Turkey, 26–29, www.europeancancerleagues.org/images/TobaccoControl/TCS_2013_ in_Europe_13-03-14_final_1.pdf Katikireddi, SV, Bond, L, Hilton, S, 2014, Changing policy framing as a deliberate strategy for public health advocacy: A qualitative policy case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol, Milbank Quarterly, 92, 2, 250–83 Katikireddi SV, Hilton, S, Bonell, C, Bond, L, 2014, Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: A qualitative study of the policy process, PLoS ONE, 9, 3, e91185 Katikireddi, SV, Hilton, S, 2015, How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews, Drugs, 22, 2, 125–34 Katikireddi, SV, Hilton, S, Bond, L, 2015, The role of the Sheffield model on the minimum unit pricing of alcohol debate: The importance of a rhetorical perspective, Evidence & Policy, 12, 4, 521–39 Kearns, C, Schmidt, L, Glantz, S, 2006, Sugar industry and coronary heart disease research: A historical analysis of internal industry documents, JAMA Internal Medicine, 176, 11, 1680–85 Leyland, A, Dundas, R, McLoone, P, Boddy FA, 2007, Cause-specific inequalities in mortality in Scotland: Two decades of change: A population-based study, BMC Public Health, 7, 1, 172 Mäkelä, P, Bloomfield, K, Gustafsson, N, Huhtanen, P, Room, R, 2008, Changes in volume of drinking after changes in alcohol taxes and travellers’ allowances: Results from a panel study, Addiction, 103, 2, 181–91 McCambridge, J, Hawkins, B, Holden, C, 2013, Industry use of evidence to influence alcohol policy: A case study of submissions to the 2008 Scottish Government Consultation, PLOS Medicine, 10, 4, e1001431 Morris, J, 2015, Another step in Scottish alcohol MUP case: Alcohol policy UK, www.alcoholpolicy.net/2015/09/another-step-in-the-scottish-alcohol-mup-case. html#more Nordlund, S, 2007, The influence of EU alcohol policy on a non-EU Country, Substance Use, 12, 6, 405–18 Nutt, D, King, L, Phillips, L, 2010, Drug harms in the UK: A multicriteria decision analysis, The Lancet, 376, 9752, 1558–65 Österberg, E, 1995, Do alcohol prices affect consumption and related problems?, in H Holder and G Edwards (eds) Alcohol and public policy: Evidence and issues, London: Oxford University Press, pp 145–63 Scottish Government, 2007, Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership, www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/Partnership Scottish Government, 2009, Changing Scotland’s relationship with alcohol: A framework for action, www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/262905/0078610.pdf Scottish Government, 2015a, Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership, www.gov.scot/Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/Partnership Scottish Government, 2015b, Health inequalities, www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/ Browse/Health/TrendHealthOutcome Scottish Government, 2015c, Comment on Minimum Unit Pricing, Scottish Government Newsroom, news.gov.scot/news/comment-on-minimum-unitpricing Scottish Government, 2017, Working with the alcohol industry, www.gov.scot/ Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/Partnership Scottish Grocer’s Federation (SGF) 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN70_Scottish_Grocers_Federation.pdf Scottish Parliament, 2015 1st Report, 2015 (Session 4): Report on Health Inequalities, SP Paper 637, www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/ CurrentCommittees/85035.aspx SPICE (Scottish Parliament Information Centre) 2012, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill: SPICE briefing, www.scottish.parliament.uk/ parliamentarybusiness/45707.aspx SGAIP (Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership) 2010, Working together to promote responsible drinking and tackle alcohol related harm: Progress report for 2009/10, www.gov.scot/Resource/0039/00398409.pdf SGAIP (Scottish Government Alcohol Industry Partnership) 2014, Review of the partnership, http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0044/00449177.pdf Smith, R, 2006, The trouble with medical journals, London: Taylor and Francis Stuckler, D, McKee, M, Ebrahim, S, Basu, S, 2012, Manufacturing epidemics: The role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco, PLoS Med, 9, 6, e1001235 SWA (Scotch Whisky Association) 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/ MIN65_Scotch_Whisky_Association.pdf Voice of Young Science, 2012, Standing up for Science, 3, Peer review: The nuts and bolts, London: Sense About Science Wagenaar, A, Salois, M, Komro, K, 2009, Effects of beverage alcohol price and tax levels on drinking: A meta-analysis of 1003 estimates from 112 studies, Addiction, 104, 2, 179–90 Weller, A, 2001, Editorial peer review: Its strengths and weaknesses, Medford, NJ: Information Today Wine and Spirit Trade Association (WSTA) 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/ Inquiries/MIN93_Wine_and_Spirit_Trade_Association.pdf WHO (World Health Organization) 2010, The global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, Geneva: WHO Press WM Morrison Supermarkets, 2011, Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill, http://www.parliament.scot/S4_HealthandSportCommittee/Inquiries/MIN94_ Wm_Morrison_Supermarkets.pdf YHEC (York Health Economics Consortium) 2010, The societal cost of alcohol misuse in Scotland for 2007, Scottish Government Social Research, http://www. gov.scot/Resource/Doc/297819/0092744.pdf

    PY - 2017/10/10

    Y1 - 2017/10/10

    N2 - Aim: To assess the extent to which alcohol industry actors cited evidence in submissions to the Scottish Parliament Health and Sport Committee’s 2011 call for written evidence on the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill and to compare any citations of peer-reviewed evidence to original sources. Methods: All submissions to the consultation (n=128) were manually searched to identify those written by alcohol industry actors (n=25). The reference lists of all the alcohol industry submissions were reviewed and peer-reviewed sources were retrieved, read and assessed against their in-text citation within the alcohol industry submissions. Results: Although most industry submissions cited evidence of some sort, only 7 (28%) cited peer-reviewed evidence. Comparing the total number of citations to peer-reviewed evidence (n=17) to original sources demonstrates that 82% were questionably cited. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the majority of references to peer-reviewed evidence in this sample of alcohol industry policy submissions were misleading with examples of citations being presented as supportive of arguments that the original evidence source specifically argued against. This suggests that even the depiction of peer-reviewed evidence within alcohol industry policy submissions needs to be treated with caution.

    AB - Aim: To assess the extent to which alcohol industry actors cited evidence in submissions to the Scottish Parliament Health and Sport Committee’s 2011 call for written evidence on the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill and to compare any citations of peer-reviewed evidence to original sources. Methods: All submissions to the consultation (n=128) were manually searched to identify those written by alcohol industry actors (n=25). The reference lists of all the alcohol industry submissions were reviewed and peer-reviewed sources were retrieved, read and assessed against their in-text citation within the alcohol industry submissions. Results: Although most industry submissions cited evidence of some sort, only 7 (28%) cited peer-reviewed evidence. Comparing the total number of citations to peer-reviewed evidence (n=17) to original sources demonstrates that 82% were questionably cited. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the majority of references to peer-reviewed evidence in this sample of alcohol industry policy submissions were misleading with examples of citations being presented as supportive of arguments that the original evidence source specifically argued against. This suggests that even the depiction of peer-reviewed evidence within alcohol industry policy submissions needs to be treated with caution.

    KW - alcohol control policy

    KW - alcohol industry and eviden

    KW - minimum unit pricing

    KW - health policy

    U2 - 10.1332/174426417X15071939491726

    DO - 10.1332/174426417X15071939491726

    M3 - Article

    VL - 15

    SP - 49

    EP - 66

    JO - Evidence and Policy

    JF - Evidence and Policy

    SN - 1744-2648

    IS - 1

    ER -