Growth rates of permutation grid classes, tours on graphs, and the spectral radius

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Monotone grid classes of permutations have proven very effective in helping to determine structural and enumerative properties of classical permutation pattern classes. Associated with grid class Grid(M) is a graph, G(M), known as its "row-column" graph. We prove that the exponential growth rate of Grid(M) is equal to the square of the spectral radius of G(M). Consequently, we utilize spectral graph theoretic results to characterise all slowly growing grid classes and to show that for every γ ≥ 2 + √5 there is a grid class with growth rate arbitrarily close to γ. To prove our main result, we establish bounds on the size of certain families of tours on graphs. In the process, we prove that the family of tours of even length on a connected graph grows at the same rate as the family of "balanced" tours on the graph (in which the number of times an edge is traversed in one direction is the same as the number of times it is traversed in the other direction).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5863–5889
Number of pages27
JournalTransactions of the American Mathematical Society
Issue number8
Early online date15 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2015


  • permutations
  • permutation grid classes
  • tours on graphs
  • spectral radius
  • growth rates


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