Glycaemic, blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol control among patients with diabetes mellitus in a specialised clinic in Botswana: a cross-sectional study

Julius Chacha Mwita, Joel M Francis, Bernard Omech, Elizabeth Botsile, Aderonke Oyewo, Matshidiso Mokgwathi, Onkabetse Julia Molefe-Baikai , Brian Godman, Jose-Gaby Tshikuka

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OBJECTIVE: Control of glycaemic, hypertension and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is vital for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The current study was an audit of glycaemic, hypertension and LDL-C control among ambulant patients with T2DM in Botswana. Also, the study aimed at assessing factors associated with attaining optimal glycaemic, hypertension and LDL-C therapeutic goals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A specialised public diabetes clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with T2DM who had attended the clinic for ≥3 months between August 2017 and February 2018. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The proportion of patients with optimal glycaemic (HbA1c<7%), hypertension (blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg) and LDL-C (<1.8 mmol/L) control. RESULTS: The proportions of patients meeting optimal targets were 32.3% for glycaemic, 54.2% for hypertension and 20.4% for LDL-C. Age≥ 50 years was positively associated with optimal glycaemic control (adjusted OR [AOR] 5.79; 95% CI 1.08 to 31.14). On the other hand, an increase in diabetes duration was inversely associated with optimal glycemic control (AOR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85 to 0.98). Being on an ACE inhibitor was inversely associated with optimal hypertension control (AOR 0.35; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.85). Being female was inversely associated with optimal LDL-C control (AOR 0.24; 95% CI (0.09 - 0.59). CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM in Gaborone, Botswana, presented with suboptimal control of recommended glycaemic, hypertension and LDL-C targets. These findings call for urgent individual and health systems interventions to address key determinants of the recommended therapeutic targets among patients with diabetes in this setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere026807
Number of pages10
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jul 2019


  • glycemic control
  • hypertension
  • LDL-C
  • cholesterol
  • diabetes mellitus
  • Botswana

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