GENSMAC 3D: A numerical method for solving unsteady three-dimensional free surface flows

M.F. Tomé, A.C. Filho, J.A. Cuminato, N. Mangiavacchi, S. McKee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


A numerical method for solving three-dimensional free surface flows is presented. The technique is an extension of the GENSMAC code for calculating free surface flows in two dimensions. As in GENSMAC, the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a finite difference method; the fluid surface is represented by a piecewise linear surface composed of quadrilaterals and triangles containing marker particles on their vertices; the stress conditions on the free surface are accurately imposed; the conjugate gradient method is employed for solving the discrete Poisson equation arising from a velocity update; and an automatic time step routine is used for calculating the time step at every cycle. A program implementing these features has been interfaced with a solid modelling routine defining the flow domain. A user-friendly input data file is employed to allow almost any arbitrary three-dimensional shape to be described. The visualization of the results is performed using computer graphic structures such as phong shade, flat and parallel surfaces. Results demonstrating the applicability of this new technique for solving complex free surface flows, such as cavity filling and jet buckling, are presented.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)747-796
Number of pages49
JournalInternational Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2001


  • Poisson equation
  • fluid dynamics
  • numerical methods
  • modelling


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