Projects per year
The general elements and relationships involved in sustainability were identified through an inductive literature investigation spanning nine sectors. Sustainability was found to constitute an ability, which is in turn an emergent property of a system and manifested to humans as behaviour that maintains something. Activities were identified as the means by which materials and energy are transformed in a system. From a sustainability perspective, the behaviour of system activities was observed to involve the production of intended output, waste, and intended resources from inputs of renewable and non-renewable resources. This behaviour is formalised in the S-Cycle model. Humans seeking improved sustainability were found to interpret the behaviour of system activities to produce knowledge, and take action on the basis of this knowledge to produce effects that alter activity behaviour. This process is formalised in the S-Loop model, which positions the S-Cycle model within the context of human knowledge and interpretations.
The validity, utility, and applicability of the S-Cycle model were evaluated through: two independent worked examples; three independent industrial case studies; two expert appraisal workshops with 27 practicing engineering designers; and an analytical study of 324 sustainability performance indicators (SPIs). Through these methods, the model was applied to ten distinct technical systems and expert opinions were elicited. All model elements and relationships were supported. One additional element/relationship was identified, leading to a refined model. The model was found to be artefact independent, supporting the identification of SPIs for different technical systems, and providing a consistent view on the behaviour of different sub-systems at various levels within a technical system. The S-Loop model received a degree of support through peer review and publication in the Journal of Environmental Management.
Lastly, the research and findings were critiqued, leading to the identification of advantages, disadvantages, and recommendations, and areas for future research.
|Award date||6 Jul 2015|
|Publication status||Published - 6 Jul 2015|
- sustainable design
- technical systems
- sustainability performance
- sustainability indicators
- sustainability models
- engineering design
- design for sustainability
- design for environment
- environmental performance
Hay, L. & Duffy, A., 21 Aug 2017, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 17) Vol 5: Design for X, Design to X. Glasgow, 9 p. (ICED Conference Proceedings; vol. 5).
Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution bookOpen AccessFile
The S-Cycle performance matrix: supporting comprehensive sustainability performance evaluation of technical systemsHay, L., Duffy, A. H. B. & Whitfield, R. I., 2 May 2017, In: Systems Engineering. 20, 1, p. 45-70 26 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile4 Citations (Scopus)59 Downloads (Pure)
Hay, L., Duffy, A. & Whitfield, R. I., 15 Jan 2014, In: Journal of Environmental Management. 133, p. 232-257 26 p.
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile25 Citations (Scopus)134 Downloads (Pure)
Laura Hay (Keynote/plenary speaker)30 Jul 2015
Activity: Participating in or organising an event types › Key-note speaker and plenary lectures at conferences
Laura Hay (Participant)26 Jun 2014
Activity: Participating in or organising an event types › Participation in conference