A generic inertia emulation controller (INEC) scheme for multi-terminal voltage-source-converter (VSC)-based high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems is proposed in this study. The INEC can be incorporated in any grid-side VSC station, allowing the multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) terminal to contribute an inertial response to connected AC systems during system disturbances, in a fashion similar to synchronous generators. The DC-link capacitors within the MTDC are utilised by the INEC scheme to exchange stored energy with the AC system by varying the overall DC voltage level of the MTDC network within a safe and pre-defined range. A theoretical treatment of the INEC algorithm and its implementation and integration within a conventional VSC control system are presented, and the impact on the total DC capacitance required within the MTDC network to ensure that DC voltages vary within an acceptable range is discussed. The proposed INEC scheme is validated using a MATLAB/SIMULINK model under various changes in demand and AC network faults. The model incorporates a multi-machine AC power system connected to a MTDC transmission system with multiple converter-interfaced nodes. The effectiveness of the INEC in damping post-fault oscillations and in enhancing AC grid frequency stability is also investigated.
- power grids
- power system stability
- post-fault oscillation damping