Gelation landscape engineering using a multi-reaction supramolecular hydrogelator system

Jamie S Foster, Justyna M. Zurek, Nuno M. S. Almeida, Wouter E. Hendrikson, Vincent A. A. le Sage, Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan, Amber L Thompson, Ragul Banerjee, Rienk Eelkema, Helen Elizabeth Mulvana, Martin J Paterson, Jan H van Esch, Gareth O. Lloyd

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32 Citations (Scopus)


Simultaneous control of the kinetics and thermodynamics of two different types of covalent chemistry allows pathway selectivity in the formation of hydrogelating molecules from a complex reaction network. This can lead to a range of hydrogel materials with vastly different properties, starting from a set of simple starting compounds and reaction conditions. Chemical reaction between a trialdehyde and the tuberculosis drug isoniazid can form one, two, or three hydrazone connectivity products, meaning kinetic gelation pathways can be addressed. Simultaneously, thermodynamics control the formation of either a keto or an enol tautomer of the products, again resulting in vastly different materials. Overall, this shows that careful navigation of a reaction landscape using both kinetic and thermodynamic selectivity can be used to control material selection from a complex reaction network.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14236-14239
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - 26 Oct 2015


  • gelation landscape engineering
  • hydrogel materials
  • hydrogelating molecules
  • complex reaction network

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    Foster, J. S., Zurek, J. M., Almeida, N. M. S., Hendrikson, W. E., le Sage, V. A. A., Lakshminarayanan, V., Thompson, A. L., Banerjee, R., Eelkema, R., Mulvana, H. E., Paterson, M. J., van Esch, J. H., & Lloyd, G. O. (2015). Gelation landscape engineering using a multi-reaction supramolecular hydrogelator system. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137(45), 14236-14239.