Recent rapid progress in the theoretical and experimental study of turbulence modulation has led to greater understanding of the physics of particle-gas turbulence interactions. A new two-fluid model incorporating these advances for relatively dilute gas-solid flows containing high-inertia particles is established. The effect of aerodynamic forces upon the particulate stresses is considered in this kinetic theory-based model, and the influence of the particles on the turbulent gas is addressed: the work associated with drag forces contributes to the gas turbulent energy, and the space occupied by particles restricts the turbulent length scale. The interparticle length scale, which is usually ignored, has been incorporated into a new model for determining the turbulent length scale. This model also considers the transport effect on the turbulent length scale. Simulation results for fully developed steady flows in vertical pipes are compared with a wide range of published experimental data and, generally, good agreement is shown. This comprehensive and validated model accounts for many of the interphase interactions that have been shown to be important.
- particle-gas turbulence interactions
- particulate stresses