Keypoint-based and block-based methods are two main categories of techniques for detecting copy-move forged images, one of the most common digital image forgery schemes. In general, block-based methods suffer from high computational cost due to the large number of image blocks used and fail to handle geometric transformations. On the contrary, keypoint-based approaches can overcome these two drawbacks yet are found difficult to deal with smooth regions. As a result, fusion of these two approaches is proposed for effective copy-move forgery detection. First, our scheme adaptively determines an appropriate initial size of regions to segment the image into non-overlapped regions. Feature points are extracted as keypoints using the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) from the image. The ratio between the number of keypoints and the total number of pixels in that region is used to classify the region into smooth or non-smooth (keypoints) regions. Accordingly, block based approach using Zernike moments and keypoint based approach using SIFT along with filtering and post-processing are respectively applied to these two kinds of regions for effective forgery detection. Experimental results show that the proposed fusion scheme outperforms the keypoint-based method in reliability of detection and the block-based method in efficiency.
- image forensics
- copy-move image forgery detection
- adaptive fusion
- Zernike moments