Functional performance of a bi-layered chitosan-nano-hydroxyapatite osteochondral scaffold: a pre-clinical in vitro tribological study

Raelene M. Cowie, Laura Macri-Pellizzeri, Jane McLaren, William J. Sanderson, Reda M. Felfel, Colin A. Scotchford, Brigitte E. Scammell, David M. Grant, Virginie Sottile, Louise M. Jennings

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Abstract

Osteochondral grafts are used for repair of focal osteochondral lesions. Autologous grafts are the gold standard treatment; however, limited graft availability and donor site morbidity restrict use. Therefore, there is a clinical need for different graft sources/materials which replicate natural cartilage function. Chitosan has been proposed for this application. The aim of this study was to assess the biomechanics and biotribology of a bioresorbable chitosan/chitosan-nano-hydroxyapatite osteochondral construct (OCC), implanted in an in vitro porcine knee experimental simulation model. The OCC implanted in different surgical positions (flush, proud and inverted) was compared to predicate grafts in current clinical use and a positive control consisting of a stainless steel graft implanted proud of the cartilage surface. After 3 h (10 800 cycles) wear simulation under a walking gait, subsidence occurred in all OCC samples irrespective of surgical positioning, but with no apparent loss of material and low meniscus wear. Half the predicate grafts exhibited delamination and scratching of the cartilage surfaces. No graft subsidence occurred in the positive controls but wear and deformation of the meniscus were apparent. Implanting a new chitosan-based OCC either optimally (flush), inverted or proud of the cartilage surface resulted in minimal wear, damage and deformation of the meniscus.
Original languageEnglish
Article number230431
Number of pages13
JournalRoyal Society Open Science
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • chitosan
  • tribology
  • osteochondral graft
  • natural knee joint
  • joint simulation

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