From polar night to midnight sun: diel vertical migration, metabolism and biogeochemical role of zooplankton in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

G. Darnis, L. Hobbs, M. Geoffroy, J. C. Grenvald, P. E. Renaud, J. Berge, Finlo Cottier, S. Kristiansen, M. Daase, J. E. Søreide, A. Wold, N. Morata, T. Gabrielsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Zooplankton vertical migration enhances the efficiency of the ocean biological pump by translocating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) below the mixed layer through respiration and excretion at depth. We measured C and N active transport due to diel vertical migration (DVM) in a Svalbard fjord at 79°N. Multifrequency analysis of backscatter data from an Acoustic Zooplankton Fish Profiler moored from January to September 2014, combined with plankton net data, showed that Thysanoessa spp. euphausiids made up > 90% of the diel migrant biomass. Classical synchronous DVM occurred before and after the phytoplankton bloom, leading to a mismatch with intensive primary production during the midnight sun. Zooplankton DVM resulted in C respiration of 0.9 g m−2 and ammonium excretion of 0.18 g N m−2 below 82 m depth between February and April, and 0.2 g C m−2 and 0.04 g N m−2 from 11 August to 9 September, representing > 25% and > 33% of sinking flux of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Such contribution of DVM active transport to the biological pump in this high-Arctic location is consistent with previous measurements in several equatorial to subarctic oceanic systems of the World Ocean. Climate warming is expected to result in tighter coupling between DVM and bloom periods, stronger stratification of the Barents Sea, and northward advection of boreal euphausiids. This may increase the role of DVM in the functioning of the biological pump on the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean, particularly where euphausiids are or will be prevalent in the zooplankton community.
LanguageEnglish
JournalLimnology and Oceanography
Early online date24 Mar 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

vertical migration
fjord
Euphausiacea
Arctic region
zooplankton
metabolism
pumps
active transport
biological pump
breathing
excretion
oceans
Barents Sea
nitrogen
algal blooms
algal bloom
respiration
global warming
plankton
primary productivity

Keywords

  • lake temperatures
  • surface water
  • deep water
  • monthly heterogenity
  • climate change
  • seasonal

Cite this

Darnis, G. ; Hobbs, L. ; Geoffroy, M. ; Grenvald, J. C. ; Renaud, P. E. ; Berge, J. ; Cottier, Finlo ; Kristiansen, S. ; Daase, M. ; Søreide, J. E. ; Wold, A. ; Morata, N. ; Gabrielsen, T. / From polar night to midnight sun : diel vertical migration, metabolism and biogeochemical role of zooplankton in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). In: Limnology and Oceanography . 2017.
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title = "From polar night to midnight sun: diel vertical migration, metabolism and biogeochemical role of zooplankton in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)",
abstract = "Zooplankton vertical migration enhances the efficiency of the ocean biological pump by translocating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) below the mixed layer through respiration and excretion at depth. We measured C and N active transport due to diel vertical migration (DVM) in a Svalbard fjord at 79°N. Multifrequency analysis of backscatter data from an Acoustic Zooplankton Fish Profiler moored from January to September 2014, combined with plankton net data, showed that Thysanoessa spp. euphausiids made up > 90{\%} of the diel migrant biomass. Classical synchronous DVM occurred before and after the phytoplankton bloom, leading to a mismatch with intensive primary production during the midnight sun. Zooplankton DVM resulted in C respiration of 0.9 g m−2 and ammonium excretion of 0.18 g N m−2 below 82 m depth between February and April, and 0.2 g C m−2 and 0.04 g N m−2 from 11 August to 9 September, representing > 25{\%} and > 33{\%} of sinking flux of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Such contribution of DVM active transport to the biological pump in this high-Arctic location is consistent with previous measurements in several equatorial to subarctic oceanic systems of the World Ocean. Climate warming is expected to result in tighter coupling between DVM and bloom periods, stronger stratification of the Barents Sea, and northward advection of boreal euphausiids. This may increase the role of DVM in the functioning of the biological pump on the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean, particularly where euphausiids are or will be prevalent in the zooplankton community.",
keywords = "lake temperatures, surface water, deep water, monthly heterogenity, climate change, seasonal",
author = "G. Darnis and L. Hobbs and M. Geoffroy and Grenvald, {J. C.} and Renaud, {P. E.} and J. Berge and Finlo Cottier and S. Kristiansen and M. Daase and S{\o}reide, {J. E.} and A. Wold and N. Morata and T. Gabrielsen",
year = "2017",
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Darnis, G, Hobbs, L, Geoffroy, M, Grenvald, JC, Renaud, PE, Berge, J, Cottier, F, Kristiansen, S, Daase, M, Søreide, JE, Wold, A, Morata, N & Gabrielsen, T 2017, 'From polar night to midnight sun: diel vertical migration, metabolism and biogeochemical role of zooplankton in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)' Limnology and Oceanography . https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10519

From polar night to midnight sun : diel vertical migration, metabolism and biogeochemical role of zooplankton in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). / Darnis, G.; Hobbs, L.; Geoffroy, M.; Grenvald, J. C.; Renaud, P. E.; Berge, J.; Cottier, Finlo; Kristiansen, S.; Daase, M.; Søreide, J. E.; Wold, A.; Morata, N.; Gabrielsen, T.

In: Limnology and Oceanography , 24.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - From polar night to midnight sun

T2 - Limnology and Oceanography

AU - Darnis, G.

AU - Hobbs, L.

AU - Geoffroy, M.

AU - Grenvald, J. C.

AU - Renaud, P. E.

AU - Berge, J.

AU - Cottier, Finlo

AU - Kristiansen, S.

AU - Daase, M.

AU - Søreide, J. E.

AU - Wold, A.

AU - Morata, N.

AU - Gabrielsen, T.

PY - 2017/3/24

Y1 - 2017/3/24

N2 - Zooplankton vertical migration enhances the efficiency of the ocean biological pump by translocating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) below the mixed layer through respiration and excretion at depth. We measured C and N active transport due to diel vertical migration (DVM) in a Svalbard fjord at 79°N. Multifrequency analysis of backscatter data from an Acoustic Zooplankton Fish Profiler moored from January to September 2014, combined with plankton net data, showed that Thysanoessa spp. euphausiids made up > 90% of the diel migrant biomass. Classical synchronous DVM occurred before and after the phytoplankton bloom, leading to a mismatch with intensive primary production during the midnight sun. Zooplankton DVM resulted in C respiration of 0.9 g m−2 and ammonium excretion of 0.18 g N m−2 below 82 m depth between February and April, and 0.2 g C m−2 and 0.04 g N m−2 from 11 August to 9 September, representing > 25% and > 33% of sinking flux of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Such contribution of DVM active transport to the biological pump in this high-Arctic location is consistent with previous measurements in several equatorial to subarctic oceanic systems of the World Ocean. Climate warming is expected to result in tighter coupling between DVM and bloom periods, stronger stratification of the Barents Sea, and northward advection of boreal euphausiids. This may increase the role of DVM in the functioning of the biological pump on the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean, particularly where euphausiids are or will be prevalent in the zooplankton community.

AB - Zooplankton vertical migration enhances the efficiency of the ocean biological pump by translocating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) below the mixed layer through respiration and excretion at depth. We measured C and N active transport due to diel vertical migration (DVM) in a Svalbard fjord at 79°N. Multifrequency analysis of backscatter data from an Acoustic Zooplankton Fish Profiler moored from January to September 2014, combined with plankton net data, showed that Thysanoessa spp. euphausiids made up > 90% of the diel migrant biomass. Classical synchronous DVM occurred before and after the phytoplankton bloom, leading to a mismatch with intensive primary production during the midnight sun. Zooplankton DVM resulted in C respiration of 0.9 g m−2 and ammonium excretion of 0.18 g N m−2 below 82 m depth between February and April, and 0.2 g C m−2 and 0.04 g N m−2 from 11 August to 9 September, representing > 25% and > 33% of sinking flux of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Such contribution of DVM active transport to the biological pump in this high-Arctic location is consistent with previous measurements in several equatorial to subarctic oceanic systems of the World Ocean. Climate warming is expected to result in tighter coupling between DVM and bloom periods, stronger stratification of the Barents Sea, and northward advection of boreal euphausiids. This may increase the role of DVM in the functioning of the biological pump on the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean, particularly where euphausiids are or will be prevalent in the zooplankton community.

KW - lake temperatures

KW - surface water

KW - deep water

KW - monthly heterogenity

KW - climate change

KW - seasonal

U2 - 10.1002/lno.10519

DO - 10.1002/lno.10519

M3 - Article

JO - Limnology and Oceanography

JF - Limnology and Oceanography

SN - 0024-3590

ER -