Friction stir welding of 6mm thick carbon steel underwater and in air

P. Baillie, S. W. Campbell, A. M. Galloway, S. R. Cater, N. A. McPherson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
256 Downloads (Pure)


This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding (FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to the presence of a slightly less angular grain structure than the samples welded in air. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-593
Number of pages9
JournalScience and Technology of Welding and Joining
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2015


  • Charpy impact toughness
  • distortion
  • fatigue
  • friction stir welding (FSW)
  • micro-hardness
  • underwater


Dive into the research topics of 'Friction stir welding of 6mm thick carbon steel underwater and in air'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this