Frequency-dependent ultrasound-induced transformation in E. coli

Jeremy Deeks, James Windmill, Maduka Agbeze-Onuma, Robert M Kalin, Peter Argondizza, Charles W Knapp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
101 Downloads (Pure)


Ultrasound-enhanced gene transfer (UEGT) is continuing to gain interest across many disciplines; however, very few studies investigate UEGT efficiency across a range of frequencies. Using a variable frequency generator, UEGT was tested in E. coli at six ultrasonic frequencies. Results indicate frequency can significantly influence UEGT efficiency positively and negatively. A frequency of 61 kHz improved UEGT efficiency by ~70 % higher, but 99 kHz impeded UEGT to an extent worse than no ultrasound exposure. The other four frequencies (26, 133, 174, and 190 kHz) enhanced transformation compared to no ultrasound, but efficiencies did not vary. The influence of frequency on UEGT efficiency was observed across a range of operating frequencies. It is plausible that frequency-dependent dynamics of mechanical and chemical energies released during cavitational-bubble collapse (CBC) are responsible for observed UEGT efficiencies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2461-2465
Number of pages5
JournalBiotechnology Letters
Issue number12
Early online date22 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014


  • bacteria
  • plasmid
  • sonoporation
  • transformation
  • ultrasonic
  • frequency-dependent
  • ultrasound-induced
  • e. coli


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