Formulations for children: problems and solutions

Hannah K. Batchelor, John F. Marriott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

125 Citations (Scopus)


Paediatric formulation design is complex as there is a need to understand the developmental physiological changes that occur during childhood and their impact on the absorption of drugs. Paediatric dose adjustments are usually based on achieving pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profiles equivalent to those achieved in adult populations. However, differences in the way in which children handle adult products or the use of bespoke paediatric formulations can result in unexpected pharmacokinetic drug profiles with altered clinical efficacy. Differences in drug formulations need to be understood by healthcare professionals involved in the prescribing, administration or dispensing of drugs to children such that appropriate advice is given to ensure that therapeutic outcomes are achieved. This issue is not confined to oral medicines but is applicable for all routes of administration encountered in paediatric therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-418
Number of pages14
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2015


  • bioequivalence
  • biopharmaceutics
  • drug formulations
  • paediatric
  • pharmacokinetics


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