Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice

David J. Nicol, Debra Macfarlane-Dick

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2058 Citations (Scopus)


    The research on formative assessment and feedback is reinterpreted to show how these processes can help students take control of their own learning, i.e. become self-regulated learners. This reformulation is used to identify seven principles of good feedback practice that support self-regulation. A key argument is that students are already assessing their own work and generating their own feedback, and that higher education should build on this ability. The research underpinning each feedback principle is presented, and some examples of easy-to-implement feedback strategies are briefly described. This shift in focus, whereby students are seen as having a proactive rather than a reactive role in generating and using feedback, has profound implications for the way in which teachers organise assessments and support learning.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)199-218
    Number of pages19
    JournalStudies in Higher Education
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006


    • education
    • formative assessment
    • self regulated learning
    • good feedback practice

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