Forecasting the European carbon market

Gary Koop, Lise Tole

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)
144 Downloads (Pure)


In an effort to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, in 2005 the European Union introduced a cap-and-trade scheme where mandated installations are allocated permits to emit CO2. Financial markets have developed that allow companies to trade these carbon permits. For the EU to achieve reductions in CO2 emissions at a minimum cost, it is necessary that companies make appropriate investments and policymakers design optimal policies. In an effort to clarify the workings of the carbon market, several recent papers have attempted to statistically model it. However, the European carbon
market (EU ETS) has many institutional features that potentially impact on daily carbon prices (and associated …nancial futures). As a consequence, the carbon market has properties that are quite di¤erent from conventional financial assets traded in mature markets. In this paper, we use dynamic model averaging (DMA) in order to forecast in this newly-developing market. DMA is a recently-developed statistical method which has three advantages over conventional approaches. First, it allows the coefficients on the predictors in a forecasting model to change over time. Second, it allows for the entire forecasting model to change over time. Third, it surmounts statistical problems which arise from the large number of potential predictors that can explain carbon prices. Our empirical results indicate that there are both important policy and statistical benefits with our approach. Statistically, we present strong evidence that there is substantial turbulence and change in the EU ETS market, and that DMA can model these features and forecast accurately compared to conventional approaches. From a policy perspective, we discuss the relative and changing role of different price drivers in the EU ETS. Finally, we document the forecast performance of DMA and discuss how this relates to the efficiency and maturity of this market.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723–741
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A
Issue number3
Early online date1 Nov 2012
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013


  • Bayesian
  • model averaging
  • carbon permit trading
  • carbon market
  • fi…nancial markets
  • state space model


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