Fmoc-diphenylalanine self-assembly mechanism induces apparent pk(a) shifts

C. Tang, A.M. Smith, R.F. Collins, R.V. Ulijn, A. Saiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

308 Citations (Scopus)


We report the effect of pH on the self-assembly process of Fmoc-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) into fibrils consisting of antiparallel β-sheets, and show that it results in two apparent pKa shifts of 6.4 and 2.2 pH units above the theoretical pKa (3.5). Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and oscillatory rheology, these two transitions were shown to coincide with significant structural changes. An entangled network of flexible fibrils forming a weak hydrogel dominates at high pH, while nongelling flat rigid ribbons form at intermediate pH values. Overall, this study provides further understanding of the self-assembly mechanism of aromatic short peptide derivatives.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9447-9453
Number of pages6
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2009


  • supramolecular hydrogels
  • reversed hydrolysis
  • peptide
  • mineralization
  • biomaterials
  • nanofibers
  • scaffolds
  • cells


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