Flexible modelling of the dissolution performance of directly compressed tablets

Natalie Maclean, John A. Armstrong, Mark A. Carroll, Mohammad Salehian, James Mann, Gavin Reynolds, Blair Johnston, Daniel Markl

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In this study, a compartmental disintegration and dissolution model is proposed for the prediction and evaluation of the dissolution performance of directly compressed tablets. This dissolution model uses three compartments (Bound, Disintegrated, and Dissolved) to describe the state of each particle of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The disintegration of the tablet is captured by three fitting parameters. Two disintegration parameters, β0 and βt,0 , describe the initial disintegration rate and the change in disintegration rate, respectively. A third parameter, α, describes the effect of the volume of dissolved drug on the disintegration process. As the tablet disintegrates, particles become available for dissolution. The dissolution rate is determined by the Nernst-Brunner equation, whilst taking into account the hydrodynamic effects within the vessel of a USP II (paddle) apparatus. This model uses the raw material properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (solubility, particle size distribution, true density), lending it towards early development activities during which time the amount of drug substance available may be limited. Additionally, the strong correlations between the fitting parameters and the tablet porosity indicate the potential to isolate the manufacturing effects and thus implement the model as part of a real-time release testing strategy for a continuous direct compression line.
Original languageEnglish
Article number124084
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Early online date4 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2024


  • dissolution modelling
  • tablet disintegration
  • tablet dissolution
  • solid oral dosage forms


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