Flavor formation and character in cocoa and chocolate: a critical review

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, A. Paterson, Mark Fowler, Angela Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

282 Citations (Scopus)


Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype, environmental factors, post-harvest treatment, and processing technologies influence chocolate flavor formation and relationships with final flavor quality, has not been clear. With increasing speciality niche products in chocolate confectionery, greater understanding of factors contributing to the variations in flavor character would have significant commercial implications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)840-857
Number of pages17
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008


  • theobroma cacao
  • genetic origin
  • cocoa fermentation
  • roasting
  • conching
  • chocolate flavor
  • pharmacology


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