Factors affecting the development & implementation of the structural aspects of the Nigeria building code among the stakeholder's within the house building construction sector in the Lokoja municipality

Sunday Ukwe-nya Yakubu, Andrew Agapiou

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The failure of the Nigeria Building Code (BC) development and implementation for the structural house building construction process in the Lokoja Municipality to protect the buildings, occupants and the environment as a result of vested stakeholder interests reverberates with significant impacts on house building failures leading to fatalities. There have been 742 recorded deaths, 96 injuries and 63 building failures: three cases from 1976–1978, 19 cases from 1982–1995, and 42 cases from 2000 to 16 September 2014 in Nigeria. These cause investors to lose confidence and allow the entry of non-professionals into the industry. This paper identifies and examines the key factors that affect the development and implementation of structural aspects of house BCs, drawing on contextual analysis and international experience. This paper represents part of a large Ph.D. research project, focusing on the key internal and external factors affecting the development and implementation of structural aspects of a BC. This paper has identified a multitude of inter-locking key factors that affect BC implementation in Lokoja including legislation, absence of approved standards, lack of good leadership, lack of political interest or will, inadequate implementation processes, lack of code awareness, high poverty level, high professional fees and insufficient public dialogue. There are also causal factors involved, which impact risks associated with the non-implementation of the code on consumers and the development of industry and professional practice. These include corruption, professional rivalry, professional vested interest, inadequate capacity building, absence of professional involvement in decision making, lack of respect for the poor and public opinion, abuse of human rights and unemployment.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016
EventCIB World Building Congress 2016 - Tampere Hall Congress and Concert Centre , Tampere , Finland
Duration: 30 May 20163 Jun 2016


ConferenceCIB World Building Congress 2016
Internet address



  • building code
  • stakeholder
  • structural aspects
  • implementation
  • development

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