Exploring the nature and extent of interprofessional education in Schools of Pharmacy in the United Kingdom

Clare Depasquale, Scott Cunningham, Anne Boyter, Sabrina Anne Jacob, Ailsa Power, Jane Portlock, Brian Addison

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting abstractpeer-review


Background:Interprofessional education (IPE) can prepare the future workforce for collaborative practice: a necessary requirement for safe, effective and efficient person-centred care within complex health and social care systems (World Health Organization, 2010). IPE is relevant when considering the pharmacist’s expanding role and increasing input as an expert in medicines within the interprofessional team. Globally, regulators have mandated the inclusion of IPE within undergraduate pharmacy curricula.Aim: To explore the nature and extent of interprofessional education in Schools of Pharmacy (SoPs)in the United Kingdom.Method: An online survey was developed, piloted and distributed to a key member of academic staff in all 31 UK SoPs. Development took an iterativeapproach guided by the Biggs-3P Model (Biggs, 1993), discussion between the research team and review by an interprofessional expert panel. The survey included closed-and open-ended questions and a demographic section. Content analysis was employed for qualitative data. Results: Ten SoPs responded. All deliver IPE as a compulsory requirement. Most (80%) reported a steering group with interprofessional representation overseeing development. Formative/summative assessment approaches varied depending on year of study. Mechanism/purpose of evaluation varied with respondents reporting Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model Levels 1 -3 (100%;80%;70%) (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2007). Two themes emerged from open-ended questions: ‘Nature and Extent of IPE’ and ‘Factors Influencing Development and Implementation of IPE’ (Figure 1). Formal teaching is mainly integrated in other modules; various pedagogic approaches and topics are used for campus-based activities. Respondents referred to planned IPE during experiential learning (EL) placements; some still at pilot stage. Overall, respondents agreed that EL placements provided opportunities for unplanned IPE; a more focused approach is needed to maximise learning potential.
Discussion: Although IPE has been incorporated in the curricula of responding SoPs, challenges remain. Better preparation and planning are needed to ensure opportunities for unplanned IPE during EL placements are not missed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPharmacy Education
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2022
EventPharmacy Education Conference 2022 - Manchester, United Kingdom
Duration: 12 Sept 202212 Sept 2022


  • experiential learning
  • interprofessional education
  • interprofessional learning
  • pharmacy education


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