I use the simulation approach of Jobson and Korkie (J Portfolio Manag 7:70–74, 1981), combined with Michaud optimization (Michaud and Michaud, Efficient asset management: a practical guide to stock portfolio optimization and asset allocation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008), to evaluate whether US international equity closed-end funds (CEF) provide out-of-sample diversification benefits. My study finds that international CEF do not provide diversification benefits across the whole sample period. However, the out-of-sample diversification benefits of international CEF do vary across economic states. I find that there are significant diversification benefits when the lagged one-month US Treasury Bill return is lower than normal, and when higher than normal, regardless of the benchmark investment universe used.
- diversification benefits
- resampled portfolio efficiency
- closed-end funds
- US Treasury Bill