Exploring PCDD/Fs and potentially toxic elements in sewage sludge during smouldering treatment

T. Fournie, T.L. Rashwan, C. Switzer, G.P. Grant, J.I. Gerhard

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6 Citations (Scopus)
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Potentially toxic elements (PTEs), persistent organic pollutants, and emerging contaminants make sewage sludge management challenging. There is significant interest in thermal treatment technologies that can destroy these compounds. The most common thermal treatment, incineration, poses risks due to formation and/or release of hazardous substances in process emissions such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and PTEs. Smouldering has been introduced recently as a potential treatment for managing sewage sludge. Smouldering systems present several advantages over traditional incinerators; however, there are still uncertainties regarding process by-products. This key question was investigated in three laboratory-scale tests (0.08 m radius) and five oil drum-scale tests (0.3 m radius) that were evaluated for PCDD/Fs and PTEs in the mixture before and after treatment as well as in process emissions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured. These experiments represent a broad spectrum of conditions to evaluate process emissions, from robust self-sustaining to extinction of smouldering. Robust smouldering had negligible PCDD/Fs in process emissions. Weak smouldering had low levels of PCDD/Fs (emissions factor: 3.3 ± 0.3 μg TEQ/Mg dried sludge destroyed), levels less than uncontrolled emissions from commercial incinerators. Overall, smouldering acted as a sink for PCDD/Fs, as only 0-3% of the PCDD/Fs originally present in the sludge were released in the emissions, and >99% of the remainder were destroyed with
Original languageEnglish
Article number115384
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Early online date4 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022


  • smoldering combustion
  • sewage sludge
  • potentially toxic elements
  • PCDD/Fs
  • emissions


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