Exploring intrinsic and extrinsic motivational differences according to choice of physical activity

R.G. Lowry, J. Kremer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Participation motivation research in the domain of physical activity has typically
    addressed a number of demographic and contextual factors in which there are differences in key constructs. An omission from this work has been the context of the type of sport or exercise activity that participants are involved in. Using categories of individual, coactive, and interactive activities as described by Cox (2002), this study examined intrinsic and extrinsic motives using the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, Briere, & Blais, 1995). A sample of 635 early adolescents, ages 12–15 years, were surveyed
    on their participation in physical activity outside of compulsory school-based activity. Those who were involved in interactive activities had been doing so for a longer period, at a more competitive level, and participated for more hours per week than those who were involved in coactive or individual pursuits. The results indicated no significant difference across activity groups in terms of amotivation or introjected regulation scores. Significant differences were observed for the three intrinsic motivation scales, external and identified regulation. Participants involved in interactive activities scored consistently higher across these constructs than coactive and individual participants. In addition, coactive participants reported higher scores for a number of participation motivation constructs than did individual activity participants.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-6
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
    Issue numberS127
    Publication statusPublished - 2004


    • participation motivation research
    • physical activity
    • exercise psychology


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