A method to calculate the multiplet states of lanthanide impurities in solids is presented. This approach is based on a semi-empirical density functional method which includes corrections to account for the correlation and spin-orbit coupling of the 4f electrons. Specific multiplet states of the rare earth are produced by constraining the system. This approach is then used to investigate some of the properties of substitutional europium impurities in gallium nitride, reproducing the relative energy of two multiplets, and discussing a potential excitation mechanism for these centers.
- electronic structure