Examining the effects of paper type, pen type, writing pressure and angle of intersection on white and dark dominance in ESDA impressions of sequenced strokes-an application of the likelihood ratio

N. NicDaeid, L. Whitehead, M. Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)


Questioned document casework can occasionally involve the sequencing of impressions. Although some conclusions can be drawn from looking at ESDA traces of intersections there is currently no way of assessing the strength of the observations made in any given case. Using a range of paper and pen types this work examines points of intersection and evaluates the results statistically in order judge the value of the results obtained.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-35
Number of pages3
JournalForensic Science International
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2008


  • ESDA
  • sequencing strokes

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