Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the evolution of microstructure and crystallographic texture during friction stir welding of dissimilar type 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) to type S275 low carbon-manganese structural steel. The results of microstructural analyses show that the temperature in the center of stirred zone reached temperatures between Ac 1 and Ac 3 during welding, resulting in a minor ferrite-to-austenite phase transformation in the S275 steel, and no changes in the fractions of ferrite and austenite in the DSS. Temperatures in the thermomechanically affected and shoulder-affected zones of both materials, in particular toward the root of the weld, did not exceed the Ac 1 of S275 steel. The shear generated by the friction between the material and the rotating probe occurred in austenitic/ferritic phase field of the S275 and DSS. In the former, the transformed austenite regions of the microstructure were transformed to acicular ferrite, on cooling, while the dual-phase austenitic/ferritic structure of the latter was retained. Studying the development of crystallographic textures with regard to shear flow lines generated by the probe tool showed the dominance of simple shear components across the whole weld in both materials. The ferrite texture in S275 steel was dominated by D 1, D 2, E, E¯ , and F, where the fraction of acicular ferrite formed on cooling showed a negligible deviation from the texture for the ideal shear texture components of bcc metals. The ferrite texture in DSS was dominated by D 1, D 2, I, I¯ , and F, and that of austenite was dominated by the A, A¯ , B, and B¯ of the ideal shear texture components for bcc and fcc metals, respectively. While D 1, D 2, and F components of the ideal shear texture are common between the ferrite in S275 steel and that of dual-phase DSS, the preferential partitioning of strain into the ferrite phase of DSS led to the development of I and I¯ components in DSS, as opposed to E and E¯ in the S275 steel. The formations of fine and ultrafine equiaxed grains were observed in different regions of both materials that are believed to be due to strain-induced continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) in ferrite of both DSS and S275 steel, and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) in austenite phase of DSS.
- friction stir welding
- continuous dynamic recrystallization
- discontinuous dynamic recrystallization
- duplex stainless steel
- dissimilar welding