Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

A. Ellwanger, C. Berggren, S. Bayoudh, C. Crecenzi, L. Karlsson, P.K. Owens, K. Ensing, P. Cormack, D.C. Sherrington, B. Sellergren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

171 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was to reduce the bleeding to levels that would allow the use of the materials as affinity phases for extraction of clenbuterol from bovine urine at concentrations below 1 ng ml(-1). After treatment, the clenbuterol imprinted polymers were packed into solid-phase extraction columns and the bleeding was estimated by quantifying the amount of template released in 10 ml of methanol-acetic acid (9 + 1 v/v). This was followed by an assessment of selectivity and recovery in comparison with non-treated material. The lowest bleeding level was found after MAE using 100% trifluoroacetic acid for 3 x 20 min at 100 degreesC. The collected eluate contained in this case 3 ng ml(-1) of clenbuterol. The same material was subsequently used for the extraction of clenbuterol from spiked bovine urine. The resulting selectivity and recovery were lower compared with those obtained using the untreated material. A milder but still efficient method to reduce the bleeding level was found to be MAE with formic acid. In this case a bleeding level of 14 ng ml(-1) was found after only a 1 h extraction time. In a second model system, using a polymer imprinted with l-phenylalanine anilide, the bleeding was reduced to a similar level by extensive on-line washing in good swelling solvents containing acid or base additives and after thermal annealing of the polymers in the dry state.
LanguageEnglish
Pages784-792
Number of pages8
JournalAnalyst
Volume126
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Clenbuterol
Polymers
polymer
Hemorrhage
Microwaves
formic acid
annealing
urine
Hot Temperature
Urine
Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
Trifluoroacetic Acid
Annealing
Trifluoroacetic acid
Recovery
Solid Phase Extraction
Supercritical fluids
evaluation
method
removal

Keywords

  • SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION
  • STATIONARY PHASES
  • SOLUTE RETENTION
  • CHIRAL CAVITIES
  • CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • ENANTIOMERS
  • ENRICHMENT
  • RESOLUTION
  • SORBENT

Cite this

Ellwanger, A., Berggren, C., Bayoudh, S., Crecenzi, C., Karlsson, L., Owens, P. K., ... Sellergren, B. (2001). Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers. Analyst, 126(6), 784-792. https://doi.org/10.1039/b009693h
Ellwanger, A. ; Berggren, C. ; Bayoudh, S. ; Crecenzi, C. ; Karlsson, L. ; Owens, P.K. ; Ensing, K. ; Cormack, P. ; Sherrington, D.C. ; Sellergren, B. / Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers. In: Analyst. 2001 ; Vol. 126, No. 6. pp. 784-792.
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Ellwanger, A, Berggren, C, Bayoudh, S, Crecenzi, C, Karlsson, L, Owens, PK, Ensing, K, Cormack, P, Sherrington, DC & Sellergren, B 2001, 'Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers' Analyst, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 784-792. https://doi.org/10.1039/b009693h

Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers. / Ellwanger, A.; Berggren, C.; Bayoudh, S.; Crecenzi, C.; Karlsson, L.; Owens, P.K.; Ensing, K.; Cormack, P.; Sherrington, D.C.; Sellergren, B.

In: Analyst, Vol. 126, No. 6, 2001, p. 784-792.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

AU - Ellwanger, A.

AU - Berggren, C.

AU - Bayoudh, S.

AU - Crecenzi, C.

AU - Karlsson, L.

AU - Owens, P.K.

AU - Ensing, K.

AU - Cormack, P.

AU - Sherrington, D.C.

AU - Sellergren, B.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was to reduce the bleeding to levels that would allow the use of the materials as affinity phases for extraction of clenbuterol from bovine urine at concentrations below 1 ng ml(-1). After treatment, the clenbuterol imprinted polymers were packed into solid-phase extraction columns and the bleeding was estimated by quantifying the amount of template released in 10 ml of methanol-acetic acid (9 + 1 v/v). This was followed by an assessment of selectivity and recovery in comparison with non-treated material. The lowest bleeding level was found after MAE using 100% trifluoroacetic acid for 3 x 20 min at 100 degreesC. The collected eluate contained in this case 3 ng ml(-1) of clenbuterol. The same material was subsequently used for the extraction of clenbuterol from spiked bovine urine. The resulting selectivity and recovery were lower compared with those obtained using the untreated material. A milder but still efficient method to reduce the bleeding level was found to be MAE with formic acid. In this case a bleeding level of 14 ng ml(-1) was found after only a 1 h extraction time. In a second model system, using a polymer imprinted with l-phenylalanine anilide, the bleeding was reduced to a similar level by extensive on-line washing in good swelling solvents containing acid or base additives and after thermal annealing of the polymers in the dry state.

AB - Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was to reduce the bleeding to levels that would allow the use of the materials as affinity phases for extraction of clenbuterol from bovine urine at concentrations below 1 ng ml(-1). After treatment, the clenbuterol imprinted polymers were packed into solid-phase extraction columns and the bleeding was estimated by quantifying the amount of template released in 10 ml of methanol-acetic acid (9 + 1 v/v). This was followed by an assessment of selectivity and recovery in comparison with non-treated material. The lowest bleeding level was found after MAE using 100% trifluoroacetic acid for 3 x 20 min at 100 degreesC. The collected eluate contained in this case 3 ng ml(-1) of clenbuterol. The same material was subsequently used for the extraction of clenbuterol from spiked bovine urine. The resulting selectivity and recovery were lower compared with those obtained using the untreated material. A milder but still efficient method to reduce the bleeding level was found to be MAE with formic acid. In this case a bleeding level of 14 ng ml(-1) was found after only a 1 h extraction time. In a second model system, using a polymer imprinted with l-phenylalanine anilide, the bleeding was reduced to a similar level by extensive on-line washing in good swelling solvents containing acid or base additives and after thermal annealing of the polymers in the dry state.

KW - SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION

KW - STATIONARY PHASES

KW - SOLUTE RETENTION

KW - CHIRAL CAVITIES

KW - CHROMATOGRAPHY

KW - ENANTIOMERS

KW - ENRICHMENT

KW - RESOLUTION

KW - SORBENT

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b009693h

U2 - 10.1039/b009693h

DO - 10.1039/b009693h

M3 - Article

VL - 126

SP - 784

EP - 792

JO - Analyst

T2 - Analyst

JF - Analyst

SN - 0003-2654

IS - 6

ER -

Ellwanger A, Berggren C, Bayoudh S, Crecenzi C, Karlsson L, Owens PK et al. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers. Analyst. 2001;126(6):784-792. https://doi.org/10.1039/b009693h