Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan

Humayun Riaz, Brian Godman, Sajid Bashir, Shahzad Hussain, Sidra Mahmood, Durdana Waseem, Farnaz Malik, Syed Atif Raza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Irrational drug use practices are a burden to healthcare facilities. Poor prescribing practices affect the overall management and cost of treatment of non-communicable diseases that are the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In an effort to improve prescribing practices, this study was designed to assess prescribing, consultation and facility indicators in healthcare facilities of Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan from December 2012 to December 2013. In this cross-sectional study, random and convenient sampling were used to collected data from both private and public healthcare facilities. Quantitative data was collected using structured questionnaire, observations and prescription analysis whereas qualitative information on factors influencing prescribing practices was obtained by interviewing medical practitioners. A total of 13693 prescriptions were obtained from 500 patient-prescriber encounters. Results show that history taking, physical examination and diagnoses were adequate while generic prescribing was four fold less than drugs prescribed by brands. Average number of drugs prescribed was 4.63 with more prescribing tendency in private facilities. 45.07% prescription costs were less than Rs. 150. Sulfonylureas, statins and ACE inhibitors were highly prescribed drugs for diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Prescribing practices were dominantly influenced by severity of disease (73% Punjab; 81% Sindh), patient age (75% Punjab; 68% Sindh) and availability of drugs (62% Punjab; 56% Sindh) whereby 91% practitioners in Sindh and 52% in Punjab rely on medical representatives as the source of drug information. Moreover, the pharmacy and therapeutic committees in all facilities were non-functional along with non-availability of essential drug list n 87% heal facilities. Thus, there are considerable opportunities to improve the rational use of medicines in Pakistan including low prices for generics, physician education, prescribing guidelines and formularies.
LanguageEnglish
Pages787-794
Number of pages8
JournalActa Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

Fingerprint

Drug Evaluation
Pakistan
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Prescriptions
Delivery of Health Care
Public Facilities
Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
Essential Drugs
Formularies
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Hyperlipidemias
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Health Care Costs
Physical Examination
Referral and Consultation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Guidelines
Hypertension
Morbidity
Physicians

Keywords

  • drug use indicators
  • Pakistan health care
  • healthcare facilities
  • prescribed drugs

Cite this

Riaz, H., Godman, B., Bashir, S., Hussain, S., Mahmood, S., Waseem, D., ... Raza, S. A. (2016). Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, 787-794.
Riaz, Humayun ; Godman, Brian ; Bashir, Sajid ; Hussain, Shahzad ; Mahmood, Sidra ; Waseem, Durdana ; Malik, Farnaz ; Raza, Syed Atif. / Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. In: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica. 2016 ; pp. 787-794.
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Riaz, H, Godman, B, Bashir, S, Hussain, S, Mahmood, S, Waseem, D, Malik, F & Raza, SA 2016, 'Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan' Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, pp. 787-794.

Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. / Riaz, Humayun ; Godman, Brian; Bashir, Sajid; Hussain, Shahzad; Mahmood, Sidra; Waseem, Durdana; Malik, Farnaz; Raza, Syed Atif.

In: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, 01.05.2016, p. 787-794.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Riaz H, Godman B, Bashir S, Hussain S, Mahmood S, Waseem D et al. Evaluation of drug use indicators for non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica. 2016 May 1;787-794.