A conservative Eulerian numerical approach for modeling postimpact Supercooled Large Droplets undergoing splashing and bouncing on aircraft surfaces is presented. The approach introduces the effect of the postimpact droplets by successive solutions of the conservation equations. Two models have been selected to identify the droplet splashing and bouncing conditions, and to provide initial conditions for the reinjected water. The method has been applied to droplet impingement in Supercooled Large Droplet conditions on clean and iced NACA 23012 geometries, as well as the MS(1)-0317 airfoil, and the results have been compared to experimental data. Good agreement is observed for both impingement limits and collection efficiency. Additionally, the method has been applied to a three-element high-lift configuration operating in one of the proposed Appendix O Supercooled Large Droplet environments to demonstrate the danger posed by the re-impingement of splashing and bouncing droplets on complex interacting aerodynamic components.
- supercooled large droplets
Bilodeau, D., Habashi, W., Baruzzi, G., & Fossati, M. (2015). Eulerian modeling of supercooled large droplet splashing and bouncing. Journal of Aircraft, 52(5), 1611 - 1624. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.C033023