Estimating the willingness-to-pay for Natura 2000 sites

R.E. Wright

Research output: Book/ReportOther report


The significant non-use values, in the order of 48 per year per Scottish household for protecting all 300 Natura 2000 sites is not that unreasonable when compared to other valuation studies. For example, Hanley et al (1996) derived Scottish household WTP values of 97 per year and 62 per year to maintain Machair ESA and Breadalbane ESAs respectively, much of which was non-use value. The visitor to Scotland non-use value of 6 per adult visit to Scotland to protect all 300 N2K sites is also likely to be a reasonable value. However, it is not possible to compare this to any other similar type of valuation study due to the lack of similar valuation contexts. The top down valuation approach adopted for non-use values (i.e. asking a value for all 300 sites and splitting that value down) helped overcome potential aggregation problems. For example, if respondents were asked their value to protect a selection of individual sites, there would potentially have been serious income constraints when multiplying the benefits to a national level.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • natura 2000
  • environmental economics
  • willingness to pay


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