Estimating the health risk associated with the use of ecological sanitation toilets in Malawi

Save Kumwenda, Chisomo Msefula, Wilfred Kadewa, Bagrey Ngwira, Tracy Morse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Use of Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) sludge is becoming popular due to increasing price of organic fertilizers in Malawi; however, there is little evidence on the associated risks. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was done to determine health risks associated with use of EcoSan. Pathogens considered included Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, and soil transmitted helminths (STHs). Exponential and Beta Poisson models were used to estimate the risk from helminthic and bacterial pathogens, respectively. Main exposure pathways were through poor storage of sludge, contamination of foods during drying, walking barefoot on the ground contaminated with sludge, pit emptying without protection, and application of sludge in the elds. Estimated annual risk for Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia, and hookworms was approximately over 5.6 × 10−1 for both Fossa Alternas (FAs) and Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDTs). Risk from E. coli and Salmonella was 8.9 × 10−2 and above. e risks were higher than WHO acceptable risk for use of faecal sludge in crops of 10−4 infections per year. Promoters and users of EcoSan latrines need to consider advocating for strict guidelines to reduce the risk.
LanguageEnglish
Article number3931802
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Environmental and Public Health
Volume2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2017

Fingerprint

Malawi
Sanitation
Health risks
Sewage
Health
Salmonella
Pathogens
Escherichia coli
Toilet Facilities
Food Contamination
Ascaris lumbricoides
Taenia
Ancylostomatoidea
Fertilizers
Helminths
Risk assessment
Crops
Drying
Contamination
Walking

Keywords

  • ecological sanitation sludge
  • Malawi
  • quantitative microbiological risk assessment
  • health risk
  • E. coli
  • salmonella
  • soil transmitted helminths (STHs)
  • bacterial pathogens

Cite this

@article{236148b6004641b19704603b55519192,
title = "Estimating the health risk associated with the use of ecological sanitation toilets in Malawi",
abstract = "Use of Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) sludge is becoming popular due to increasing price of organic fertilizers in Malawi; however, there is little evidence on the associated risks. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was done to determine health risks associated with use of EcoSan. Pathogens considered included Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, and soil transmitted helminths (STHs). Exponential and Beta Poisson models were used to estimate the risk from helminthic and bacterial pathogens, respectively. Main exposure pathways were through poor storage of sludge, contamination of foods during drying, walking barefoot on the ground contaminated with sludge, pit emptying without protection, and application of sludge in the elds. Estimated annual risk for Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia, and hookworms was approximately over 5.6 × 10−1 for both Fossa Alternas (FAs) and Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDTs). Risk from E. coli and Salmonella was 8.9 × 10−2 and above. e risks were higher than WHO acceptable risk for use of faecal sludge in crops of 10−4 infections per year. Promoters and users of EcoSan latrines need to consider advocating for strict guidelines to reduce the risk.",
keywords = "ecological sanitation sludge, Malawi, quantitative microbiological risk assessment, health risk, E. coli, salmonella, soil transmitted helminths (STHs), bacterial pathogens",
author = "Save Kumwenda and Chisomo Msefula and Wilfred Kadewa and Bagrey Ngwira and Tracy Morse",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1155/2017/3931802",
language = "English",
volume = "2017",
journal = "Journal of Environmental and Public Health",
issn = "1687-9805",

}

Estimating the health risk associated with the use of ecological sanitation toilets in Malawi. / Kumwenda, Save; Msefula, Chisomo; Kadewa, Wilfred; Ngwira, Bagrey; Morse, Tracy.

In: Journal of Environmental and Public Health , Vol. 2017, 3931802, 08.11.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Estimating the health risk associated with the use of ecological sanitation toilets in Malawi

AU - Kumwenda, Save

AU - Msefula, Chisomo

AU - Kadewa, Wilfred

AU - Ngwira, Bagrey

AU - Morse, Tracy

PY - 2017/11/8

Y1 - 2017/11/8

N2 - Use of Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) sludge is becoming popular due to increasing price of organic fertilizers in Malawi; however, there is little evidence on the associated risks. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was done to determine health risks associated with use of EcoSan. Pathogens considered included Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, and soil transmitted helminths (STHs). Exponential and Beta Poisson models were used to estimate the risk from helminthic and bacterial pathogens, respectively. Main exposure pathways were through poor storage of sludge, contamination of foods during drying, walking barefoot on the ground contaminated with sludge, pit emptying without protection, and application of sludge in the elds. Estimated annual risk for Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia, and hookworms was approximately over 5.6 × 10−1 for both Fossa Alternas (FAs) and Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDTs). Risk from E. coli and Salmonella was 8.9 × 10−2 and above. e risks were higher than WHO acceptable risk for use of faecal sludge in crops of 10−4 infections per year. Promoters and users of EcoSan latrines need to consider advocating for strict guidelines to reduce the risk.

AB - Use of Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) sludge is becoming popular due to increasing price of organic fertilizers in Malawi; however, there is little evidence on the associated risks. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was done to determine health risks associated with use of EcoSan. Pathogens considered included Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, and soil transmitted helminths (STHs). Exponential and Beta Poisson models were used to estimate the risk from helminthic and bacterial pathogens, respectively. Main exposure pathways were through poor storage of sludge, contamination of foods during drying, walking barefoot on the ground contaminated with sludge, pit emptying without protection, and application of sludge in the elds. Estimated annual risk for Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia, and hookworms was approximately over 5.6 × 10−1 for both Fossa Alternas (FAs) and Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDTs). Risk from E. coli and Salmonella was 8.9 × 10−2 and above. e risks were higher than WHO acceptable risk for use of faecal sludge in crops of 10−4 infections per year. Promoters and users of EcoSan latrines need to consider advocating for strict guidelines to reduce the risk.

KW - ecological sanitation sludge

KW - Malawi

KW - quantitative microbiological risk assessment

KW - health risk

KW - E. coli

KW - salmonella

KW - soil transmitted helminths (STHs)

KW - bacterial pathogens

UR - https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/contents/

U2 - 10.1155/2017/3931802

DO - 10.1155/2017/3931802

M3 - Article

VL - 2017

JO - Journal of Environmental and Public Health

T2 - Journal of Environmental and Public Health

JF - Journal of Environmental and Public Health

SN - 1687-9805

M1 - 3931802

ER -