Environmental provisions in American and EU free trade agreements: a preliminary comparison and research agenda

Elisa Morgera, Sikina Jinnah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)


Environmental provisions are included into bilateral trade agreements in increasingly creative ways. This article offers an initial exploration of the policy and legal dimensions of environmental provisions included in recent bilateral trade agreements concluded by the United States and by the European Union. Based primarily on a coding analysis of the environmental provisions contained in American and EU trade agreements since the mid-2000s, the article illuminates the variable characteristics of these environmental provisions,
including the different approaches of the United States and the EU (punitive versus cooperative) to their implementation. The article pays particular
attention to the unprecedented links that these treaties create with multilateral environmental agreements. It concludes with a discussion of avenues for future
research, including approaches that are comparative and interdisciplinary in nature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)324-339
Number of pages16
JournalReview of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • international law
  • EU free trade agreements

Research Output

The Promotion of Environmental Rights through EU Bilateral Agreements: Mapping the Field

Morgera, E., 2014, International Law for Common Goods: Normative Perspectives on Human Rights, Culture and Natur. Lenzerini, F. & Vrdoljak, A. (eds.). p. 421-441 20 p. (Studies in International Law).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

The role of the EU in promoting international climate change standards

Morgera, E. & Kulovesi, K., Jun 2014, EU Management of Global Emergencies: Legal Framework for Combating Threats and Crises. Govaere, I. & Poli, S. (eds.). Brill Academic Publishers, (Studies in EU External Relations; vol. 8).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Ambition, Complexity and Legitimacy of Pursuing Mutual Supportiveness through the EU's External Environmental Action

Morgera, E., 2013, The EU’s Role in Global Governance: The Legal Dimension. Van Vooren, Blockmans & Wouters (eds.). Oxford University Press, p. 194-208 14 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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