Environmental and toenail metals concentrations in copper mining and non mining communities in Zambia

Wesu Ndilila, Anna Carita Callan, Laura A McGregor, Robert M Kalin, Andrea L Hinwood

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21 Citations (Scopus)


Copper mining contributes to increased concentrations of metals in the environment, thereby increasing the risk of metals exposure to populations living in and around mining areas. This study investigated environmental and toenail metals concentrations of non-occupational human exposure to metals in 39 copper-mining town residents and 47 non-mining town residents in Zambia. Elevated environmental concentrations were found in samples collected from the mining town residents. Toenail concentrations of cobalt (GM 1.39mg/kg), copper (GM 132mg/kg), lead (21.41mg/kg) selenium (GM 0.38mg/kg) and zinc (GM 113mg/kg) were significantly higher in the mining area and these metals have previously been associated with copper mining. Residence in the mining area, drinking water, dust and soil metals concentrations were the most important contributors to toenail metals concentrations. Further work is required to establish the specific pathways of exposure and the health risks of elevated metals concentrations in the copper mining area.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-69
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Issue number1
Early online date30 Mar 2013
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014


  • metals
  • personal exposure
  • environment
  • mining
  • toenails


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