Energy and indoor environmental performance of typical Egyptian offices: survey, baseline model and uncertainties

Aly M. Elharidi, Paul G. Tuohy, Mohamed A. Teamah, Ahmed A. Hanafy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


Egyptian electricity demands have increased in recent years and are projected to grow further with significant economic and social impacts. Recently, mandatory and voluntary building codes based on international standards have been increasingly adopted. The performance of existing Egyptian buildings is not well understood making the impact of these new codes uncertain. This paper aims to provide insights into existing Egyptian building performance, and elaborate a process for developing a representative model to assist in future policy. The work presented is for office buildings but intended to be widely replicable. An energy survey was carried out for 59 Egyptian offices, categorised by building service type, it was observed that energy use increases as building services increase, and existing Egyptian offices use less energy than benchmarks. A more detailed investigation for a case study office was carried out, to inform detailed model calibration. This provided insight into energy use, thermal comfort and environmental conditions, and revealed high variability in behaviours. A calibrated model was created for the case study office, then a baseline model and input parameter sets created to represent generalised performance. Future uses including assessment of the impact of codes are discussed, and further replication potentials highlighted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367–384
Number of pages18
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Early online date11 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2017


  • Egypt
  • performance gap
  • building performance
  • energy
  • indoor environment
  • simulation
  • calibration
  • uncertainty
  • thermal comfort
  • stock modelling
  • office


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