Energetics of paraplegic cycling: a new theoretical framework and efficiency characterisation for untrained subjects

K. J. Hunt, B. A. Saunders, C. Perret, H. Berry, David. B. Allan, N. Donaldson, T. H. Kakebeeke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Complete lower-limb paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury precludes volitional leg exercise, leading to muscle atrophy and physiological de-conditioning. Cycling can be achieved using phased stimulation of the leg muscles. With training there are positive physiological adaptations and health improvement. Prior to training, however, power output may not be sufficient to overcome losses involved in rotating the legs and little is known about the energetics of untrained paralysed muscles. Here we propose efficiency measures appropriate to subjects with severe physical impairment performing cycle ergometry. These account for useful internal work (i.e. muscular work done in moving leg mass) and are applicable even for very low work rates. Experimentally, we estimated total work efficiency of ten untrained subjects with paraplegia to be 7.6 +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD). This is close to values previously reported for anaesthetised able-bodied individuals performing stimulated cycling exercise, but is less than 1/3 of that of able-bodied subjects cycling volitionally. Correspondingly, oxygen cost of the work (38.8 +/- 13.9 ml min(-1) W-1) was found to be similar to 3.5 times higher. This indicates the need, for increased power output from paralysed subjects, to maximise muscle strength through training, and to improve efficiency by determining better methods of stimulating the individual muscles involved in the exercise.

LanguageEnglish
Pages277-285
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
Volume101
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007

Fingerprint

Leg
Paraplegia
Muscles
Physiological Adaptation
Ergometry
Muscular Atrophy
Resistance Training
Muscle Strength
Spinal Cord Injuries
Oxygen
Costs and Cost Analysis
Health

Keywords

  • energetics
  • efficiency
  • exercise physiology
  • spinal cord injury
  • rehabilitation

Cite this

Hunt, K. J. ; Saunders, B. A. ; Perret, C. ; Berry, H. ; Allan, David. B. ; Donaldson, N. ; Kakebeeke, T. H. / Energetics of paraplegic cycling : a new theoretical framework and efficiency characterisation for untrained subjects. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 2007 ; Vol. 101, No. 3. pp. 277-285.
@article{f9f487554eeb452b85fe7f4046475ff9,
title = "Energetics of paraplegic cycling: a new theoretical framework and efficiency characterisation for untrained subjects",
abstract = "Complete lower-limb paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury precludes volitional leg exercise, leading to muscle atrophy and physiological de-conditioning. Cycling can be achieved using phased stimulation of the leg muscles. With training there are positive physiological adaptations and health improvement. Prior to training, however, power output may not be sufficient to overcome losses involved in rotating the legs and little is known about the energetics of untrained paralysed muscles. Here we propose efficiency measures appropriate to subjects with severe physical impairment performing cycle ergometry. These account for useful internal work (i.e. muscular work done in moving leg mass) and are applicable even for very low work rates. Experimentally, we estimated total work efficiency of ten untrained subjects with paraplegia to be 7.6 +/- 2.1{\%} (mean +/- SD). This is close to values previously reported for anaesthetised able-bodied individuals performing stimulated cycling exercise, but is less than 1/3 of that of able-bodied subjects cycling volitionally. Correspondingly, oxygen cost of the work (38.8 +/- 13.9 ml min(-1) W-1) was found to be similar to 3.5 times higher. This indicates the need, for increased power output from paralysed subjects, to maximise muscle strength through training, and to improve efficiency by determining better methods of stimulating the individual muscles involved in the exercise.",
keywords = "energetics, efficiency, exercise physiology, spinal cord injury, rehabilitation",
author = "Hunt, {K. J.} and Saunders, {B. A.} and C. Perret and H. Berry and Allan, {David. B.} and N. Donaldson and Kakebeeke, {T. H.}",
year = "2007",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1007/s00421-007-0497-5",
language = "English",
volume = "101",
pages = "277--285",
journal = "European Journal of Applied Physiology",
issn = "1439-6319",
number = "3",

}

Energetics of paraplegic cycling : a new theoretical framework and efficiency characterisation for untrained subjects. / Hunt, K. J.; Saunders, B. A.; Perret, C.; Berry, H.; Allan, David. B.; Donaldson, N.; Kakebeeke, T. H.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, Vol. 101, No. 3, 10.2007, p. 277-285.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Energetics of paraplegic cycling

T2 - European Journal of Applied Physiology

AU - Hunt, K. J.

AU - Saunders, B. A.

AU - Perret, C.

AU - Berry, H.

AU - Allan, David. B.

AU - Donaldson, N.

AU - Kakebeeke, T. H.

PY - 2007/10

Y1 - 2007/10

N2 - Complete lower-limb paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury precludes volitional leg exercise, leading to muscle atrophy and physiological de-conditioning. Cycling can be achieved using phased stimulation of the leg muscles. With training there are positive physiological adaptations and health improvement. Prior to training, however, power output may not be sufficient to overcome losses involved in rotating the legs and little is known about the energetics of untrained paralysed muscles. Here we propose efficiency measures appropriate to subjects with severe physical impairment performing cycle ergometry. These account for useful internal work (i.e. muscular work done in moving leg mass) and are applicable even for very low work rates. Experimentally, we estimated total work efficiency of ten untrained subjects with paraplegia to be 7.6 +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD). This is close to values previously reported for anaesthetised able-bodied individuals performing stimulated cycling exercise, but is less than 1/3 of that of able-bodied subjects cycling volitionally. Correspondingly, oxygen cost of the work (38.8 +/- 13.9 ml min(-1) W-1) was found to be similar to 3.5 times higher. This indicates the need, for increased power output from paralysed subjects, to maximise muscle strength through training, and to improve efficiency by determining better methods of stimulating the individual muscles involved in the exercise.

AB - Complete lower-limb paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury precludes volitional leg exercise, leading to muscle atrophy and physiological de-conditioning. Cycling can be achieved using phased stimulation of the leg muscles. With training there are positive physiological adaptations and health improvement. Prior to training, however, power output may not be sufficient to overcome losses involved in rotating the legs and little is known about the energetics of untrained paralysed muscles. Here we propose efficiency measures appropriate to subjects with severe physical impairment performing cycle ergometry. These account for useful internal work (i.e. muscular work done in moving leg mass) and are applicable even for very low work rates. Experimentally, we estimated total work efficiency of ten untrained subjects with paraplegia to be 7.6 +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD). This is close to values previously reported for anaesthetised able-bodied individuals performing stimulated cycling exercise, but is less than 1/3 of that of able-bodied subjects cycling volitionally. Correspondingly, oxygen cost of the work (38.8 +/- 13.9 ml min(-1) W-1) was found to be similar to 3.5 times higher. This indicates the need, for increased power output from paralysed subjects, to maximise muscle strength through training, and to improve efficiency by determining better methods of stimulating the individual muscles involved in the exercise.

KW - energetics

KW - efficiency

KW - exercise physiology

KW - spinal cord injury

KW - rehabilitation

U2 - 10.1007/s00421-007-0497-5

DO - 10.1007/s00421-007-0497-5

M3 - Article

VL - 101

SP - 277

EP - 285

JO - European Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - European Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 1439-6319

IS - 3

ER -