Elucidating the hydrotropism behaviour of aqueous caffeine and sodium benzoate solution through NMR and neutron total scattering analysis

Yichun Shen, Yitian Xiao, Robert M. Edkins, Tristan G.A. Youngs, Terri-Louise Hughes, James Tellam, Katharina Edkins

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Abstract

Hydrotropism is a convenient way to increase the solubility of drugs by up to several orders of magnitude, and even though it has been researched for decades with both experimental and simulation methods, its mechanism is still unknown. Here, we use caffeine/sodium benzoate (CAF-SB) as model system to explore the behaviour of caffeine solubility enhancement in water through NMR spectroscopy and neutron total scattering. 1H NMR shows strong interaction between caffeine and sodium benzoate in water. Neutron total scattering combined with empirical potential structure refinement, a systematic method to study the solution structure, reveals π-stacking between caffeine and the benzoate anion as well as Coulombic interactions with the sodium cation. The strongest hydrogen bond interaction in the system is between benzoate and water, which help dissolve CAF-SB complex and increase the solubility of CAF in water. Besides, the stronger interaction between CAF and water and the distortion of water structure are further mechanisms of the CAF solubility enhancement. It is likely that the variety of mechanisms for hydrotropism shown in this system can be found for other hydrotropes, and NMR spectroscopy and neutron total scattering can be used as complementary techniques to generate a holistic picture of hydrotropic solutions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number123520
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Volume647
Early online date17 Oct 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Nov 2023

Keywords

  • hydrotropism
  • scattering analysis
  • solubility
  • solution stucture
  • simulation
  • pharmaceutical

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