Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses

Andrew Higham, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Jennfier A. Dewhurst, Drupad K. Trivedi, Stephen J. Fowler, Royston Goodacre, Dave Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils.

Methods
Neutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE) and the expression of CD11b and CD66b was measured by flow cytometry and MMP-9 and CXCL8 by ELISA. We also measured the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) and MMP-9, along with the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Finally we analysed the biochemical composition of ECVE by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

Results
ECVE caused an increase in the expression of CD11b and CD66b, and increased the release of MMP-9 and CXCL8. Furthermore, there was an increase in NE and MMP-9 activity and an increase in p38 MAPK activation. We also identified several harmful chemicals in ECVE, including known carcinogens.

Conclusions
ECVE causes a pro-inflammatory response from human neutrophils. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use.
LanguageEnglish
Article number56
Number of pages11
JournalRespiratory Research
Volume17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2016

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Neutrophils
Matrix Metalloproteinases
Leukocyte Elastase
Safety
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Carcinogens
Electronic Cigarettes
Mass Spectrometry
Flow Cytometry
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Research

Keywords

  • electronic cigarettes
  • COPD
  • inflammation
  • smoking
  • neutrophils
  • MMP-9

Cite this

Higham, A., Rattray, N. J. W., Dewhurst, J. A., Trivedi, D. K., Fowler, S. J., Goodacre, R., & Singh, D. (2016). Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses. Respiratory Research, 17, [56]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12931-016-0368-x
Higham, Andrew ; Rattray, Nicholas J. W. ; Dewhurst, Jennfier A. ; Trivedi, Drupad K. ; Fowler, Stephen J. ; Goodacre, Royston ; Singh, Dave. / Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses. In: Respiratory Research. 2016 ; Vol. 17.
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Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses. / Higham, Andrew; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Dewhurst, Jennfier A.; Trivedi, Drupad K.; Fowler, Stephen J.; Goodacre, Royston; Singh, Dave.

In: Respiratory Research, Vol. 17, 56, 17.05.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electronic cigarette exposure triggers neutrophil inflammatory responses

AU - Higham, Andrew

AU - Rattray, Nicholas J. W.

AU - Dewhurst, Jennfier A.

AU - Trivedi, Drupad K.

AU - Fowler, Stephen J.

AU - Goodacre, Royston

AU - Singh, Dave

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Y1 - 2016/5/17

N2 - BackgroundThe use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils.MethodsNeutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE) and the expression of CD11b and CD66b was measured by flow cytometry and MMP-9 and CXCL8 by ELISA. We also measured the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) and MMP-9, along with the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Finally we analysed the biochemical composition of ECVE by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.ResultsECVE caused an increase in the expression of CD11b and CD66b, and increased the release of MMP-9 and CXCL8. Furthermore, there was an increase in NE and MMP-9 activity and an increase in p38 MAPK activation. We also identified several harmful chemicals in ECVE, including known carcinogens.ConclusionsECVE causes a pro-inflammatory response from human neutrophils. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use.

AB - BackgroundThe use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing and there is widespread perception that e-cigs are safe. E-cigs contain harmful chemicals; more research is needed to evaluate the safety of e-cig use. Our aim was to investigate the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response of human neutrophils.MethodsNeutrophils were exposed to e-cig vapour extract (ECVE) and the expression of CD11b and CD66b was measured by flow cytometry and MMP-9 and CXCL8 by ELISA. We also measured the activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) and MMP-9, along with the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Finally we analysed the biochemical composition of ECVE by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.ResultsECVE caused an increase in the expression of CD11b and CD66b, and increased the release of MMP-9 and CXCL8. Furthermore, there was an increase in NE and MMP-9 activity and an increase in p38 MAPK activation. We also identified several harmful chemicals in ECVE, including known carcinogens.ConclusionsECVE causes a pro-inflammatory response from human neutrophils. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use.

KW - electronic cigarettes

KW - COPD

KW - inflammation

KW - smoking

KW - neutrophils

KW - MMP-9

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DO - 10.1186/s12931-016-0368-x

M3 - Article

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JO - Respiratory Research

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SN - 1465-9921

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