The free energy associated with shear in the equilibrium parallel electron velocity is shown to be responsible for the excitation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in collisionless magnetoplasma. New dispersion relations are derived by using the hydrodynamic equations for the electron fluid, the magnetic-field-aligned (parallel) drift of which varies in one of the perpendicular directions, and by using a kinetic ion model, together with Ampère’s law and Poisson’s equation. The dispersion relations are analyzed both analytically and numerically for a set of parameters representative of a laboratory experiment. New filamentary instabilities are predicted.
- velocity shear