Electrodeposited copper using direct and pulse currents from electrolytes containing low concentration of additives

Eden May Bayungan Dela Pena, Sudipta Roy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This work examines the effect of pulse deposition using a "lean" electrolyte, i.e., an acid-free bath with low cupric ion and additive concentrations using direct and pulse current. To this end, 25 μm copper films have been plated on stainless steel substrates from electrolytes containing only cupric ions, chloride and commercial additives. Films have been deposited from electrolytes containing different concentrations of additives ranging from 17% to 200% of the levels recommended by the supplier. The morphology of deposits was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and grain size has been determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The crystalline structure has been examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that although pulse currents or increasing amounts of chemical additive can reduce the grain size, the mechanisms for size reduction may be different. While current pulsing helps the generation of new nuclei, using additives suppresses grain growth. Mechanical and electrical measurements of these films showed that pulsing currents provide deposits with better mechanical and electrical properties. This has been attributed to lower number of defects when pulse currents are used. Our results also show that by using pulse currents, electrolytes containing low levels of additives and metal ions can be used to obtain copper deposits attaining industry specifications. Combining pulse currents with lean electrolytes may be therefore beneficial to the environment.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-40
Number of pages40
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 21 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Electrolytes
Copper
low concentrations
direct current
electrolytes
copper
pulses
deposits
Deposits
Ions
Copper deposits
Stainless Steel
grain size
Grain growth
Electron diffraction
mechanical measurement
Metal ions
Chlorides
Electric properties
Stainless steel

Keywords

  • electrodeposition
  • copper
  • additives
  • pulse plating
  • electrolytes
  • microfabrication

Cite this

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title = "Electrodeposited copper using direct and pulse currents from electrolytes containing low concentration of additives",
abstract = "This work examines the effect of pulse deposition using a {"}lean{"} electrolyte, i.e., an acid-free bath with low cupric ion and additive concentrations using direct and pulse current. To this end, 25 μm copper films have been plated on stainless steel substrates from electrolytes containing only cupric ions, chloride and commercial additives. Films have been deposited from electrolytes containing different concentrations of additives ranging from 17{\%} to 200{\%} of the levels recommended by the supplier. The morphology of deposits was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and grain size has been determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The crystalline structure has been examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that although pulse currents or increasing amounts of chemical additive can reduce the grain size, the mechanisms for size reduction may be different. While current pulsing helps the generation of new nuclei, using additives suppresses grain growth. Mechanical and electrical measurements of these films showed that pulsing currents provide deposits with better mechanical and electrical properties. This has been attributed to lower number of defects when pulse currents are used. Our results also show that by using pulse currents, electrolytes containing low levels of additives and metal ions can be used to obtain copper deposits attaining industry specifications. Combining pulse currents with lean electrolytes may be therefore beneficial to the environment.",
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Electrodeposited copper using direct and pulse currents from electrolytes containing low concentration of additives. / Dela Pena, Eden May Bayungan; Roy, Sudipta.

In: Surface and Coatings Technology, 21.01.2018, p. 1-40.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrodeposited copper using direct and pulse currents from electrolytes containing low concentration of additives

AU - Dela Pena, Eden May Bayungan

AU - Roy, Sudipta

PY - 2018/1/21

Y1 - 2018/1/21

N2 - This work examines the effect of pulse deposition using a "lean" electrolyte, i.e., an acid-free bath with low cupric ion and additive concentrations using direct and pulse current. To this end, 25 μm copper films have been plated on stainless steel substrates from electrolytes containing only cupric ions, chloride and commercial additives. Films have been deposited from electrolytes containing different concentrations of additives ranging from 17% to 200% of the levels recommended by the supplier. The morphology of deposits was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and grain size has been determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The crystalline structure has been examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that although pulse currents or increasing amounts of chemical additive can reduce the grain size, the mechanisms for size reduction may be different. While current pulsing helps the generation of new nuclei, using additives suppresses grain growth. Mechanical and electrical measurements of these films showed that pulsing currents provide deposits with better mechanical and electrical properties. This has been attributed to lower number of defects when pulse currents are used. Our results also show that by using pulse currents, electrolytes containing low levels of additives and metal ions can be used to obtain copper deposits attaining industry specifications. Combining pulse currents with lean electrolytes may be therefore beneficial to the environment.

AB - This work examines the effect of pulse deposition using a "lean" electrolyte, i.e., an acid-free bath with low cupric ion and additive concentrations using direct and pulse current. To this end, 25 μm copper films have been plated on stainless steel substrates from electrolytes containing only cupric ions, chloride and commercial additives. Films have been deposited from electrolytes containing different concentrations of additives ranging from 17% to 200% of the levels recommended by the supplier. The morphology of deposits was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and grain size has been determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The crystalline structure has been examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that although pulse currents or increasing amounts of chemical additive can reduce the grain size, the mechanisms for size reduction may be different. While current pulsing helps the generation of new nuclei, using additives suppresses grain growth. Mechanical and electrical measurements of these films showed that pulsing currents provide deposits with better mechanical and electrical properties. This has been attributed to lower number of defects when pulse currents are used. Our results also show that by using pulse currents, electrolytes containing low levels of additives and metal ions can be used to obtain copper deposits attaining industry specifications. Combining pulse currents with lean electrolytes may be therefore beneficial to the environment.

KW - electrodeposition

KW - copper

KW - additives

KW - pulse plating

KW - electrolytes

KW - microfabrication

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