Electric power allocation in a network of fast charging stations

I. Safak Bayram, George Michailidis, Michael Devetsikiotis, Fabrizio Granelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In order to increase the penetration of electric vehicles, a network of fast charging stations that can provide drivers with a certain level of quality of service (QoS) is needed. However, given the strain that such a network can exert on the power grid, and the mobility of loads represented by electric vehicles, operating it efficiently is a challenging and complex problem. In this paper, we examine a network of charging stations equipped with an energy storage device and propose a scheme that allocates power to them from the grid, as well as routes customers. We examine three scenarios, gradually increasing their complexity. In the first one, all stations have identical charging capabilities and energy storage devices, draw constant power from the grid and no routing decisions of customers are considered. It represents the current state of affairs and serves as a baseline for evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme. In the second scenario, power to the stations is allocated in an optimal manner from the grid and in addition a certain percentage of customers can be routed to nearby stations. In the final scenario, optimal allocation of both power from the grid and customers to stations is considered. The three scenarios are evaluated using real traffic traces corresponding to weekday rush hour from a large metropolitan area in the US. The results indicate that the proposed scheme offers substantial improvements of performance compared to the current mode of operation; namely, more customers can be served with the same amount of power, thus enabling the station operators to increase their profitability. Further, the scheme provides guarantees to customers in terms of the probability of being blocked (and hence not served) by the closest charging station to their location. Overall, the paper addresses key issues related to the efficient operation, both from the perspective of the power grid and the drivers satisfaction, of a network of charging stations.

LanguageEnglish
Article number6547832
Pages1235-1246
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Volume31
Issue number7
Early online date26 Jun 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2013

Fingerprint

Electric vehicles
Energy storage
Profitability
Quality of service

Keywords

  • electric vehicles
  • performance evaluation
  • stochastic charging station model

Cite this

Bayram, I. Safak ; Michailidis, George ; Devetsikiotis, Michael ; Granelli, Fabrizio. / Electric power allocation in a network of fast charging stations. In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. 2013 ; Vol. 31, No. 7. pp. 1235-1246.
@article{b1f891e000664d9e9917ced6a5daef64,
title = "Electric power allocation in a network of fast charging stations",
abstract = "In order to increase the penetration of electric vehicles, a network of fast charging stations that can provide drivers with a certain level of quality of service (QoS) is needed. However, given the strain that such a network can exert on the power grid, and the mobility of loads represented by electric vehicles, operating it efficiently is a challenging and complex problem. In this paper, we examine a network of charging stations equipped with an energy storage device and propose a scheme that allocates power to them from the grid, as well as routes customers. We examine three scenarios, gradually increasing their complexity. In the first one, all stations have identical charging capabilities and energy storage devices, draw constant power from the grid and no routing decisions of customers are considered. It represents the current state of affairs and serves as a baseline for evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme. In the second scenario, power to the stations is allocated in an optimal manner from the grid and in addition a certain percentage of customers can be routed to nearby stations. In the final scenario, optimal allocation of both power from the grid and customers to stations is considered. The three scenarios are evaluated using real traffic traces corresponding to weekday rush hour from a large metropolitan area in the US. The results indicate that the proposed scheme offers substantial improvements of performance compared to the current mode of operation; namely, more customers can be served with the same amount of power, thus enabling the station operators to increase their profitability. Further, the scheme provides guarantees to customers in terms of the probability of being blocked (and hence not served) by the closest charging station to their location. Overall, the paper addresses key issues related to the efficient operation, both from the perspective of the power grid and the drivers satisfaction, of a network of charging stations.",
keywords = "electric vehicles, performance evaluation, stochastic charging station model",
author = "Bayram, {I. Safak} and George Michailidis and Michael Devetsikiotis and Fabrizio Granelli",
note = "{\circledC} 2013 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.",
year = "2013",
month = "7",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1109/JSAC.2013.130707",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "1235--1246",
journal = "IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications",
issn = "0733-8716",
number = "7",

}

Electric power allocation in a network of fast charging stations. / Bayram, I. Safak; Michailidis, George; Devetsikiotis, Michael; Granelli, Fabrizio.

In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 31, No. 7, 6547832, 31.07.2013, p. 1235-1246.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electric power allocation in a network of fast charging stations

AU - Bayram, I. Safak

AU - Michailidis, George

AU - Devetsikiotis, Michael

AU - Granelli, Fabrizio

N1 - © 2013 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

PY - 2013/7/31

Y1 - 2013/7/31

N2 - In order to increase the penetration of electric vehicles, a network of fast charging stations that can provide drivers with a certain level of quality of service (QoS) is needed. However, given the strain that such a network can exert on the power grid, and the mobility of loads represented by electric vehicles, operating it efficiently is a challenging and complex problem. In this paper, we examine a network of charging stations equipped with an energy storage device and propose a scheme that allocates power to them from the grid, as well as routes customers. We examine three scenarios, gradually increasing their complexity. In the first one, all stations have identical charging capabilities and energy storage devices, draw constant power from the grid and no routing decisions of customers are considered. It represents the current state of affairs and serves as a baseline for evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme. In the second scenario, power to the stations is allocated in an optimal manner from the grid and in addition a certain percentage of customers can be routed to nearby stations. In the final scenario, optimal allocation of both power from the grid and customers to stations is considered. The three scenarios are evaluated using real traffic traces corresponding to weekday rush hour from a large metropolitan area in the US. The results indicate that the proposed scheme offers substantial improvements of performance compared to the current mode of operation; namely, more customers can be served with the same amount of power, thus enabling the station operators to increase their profitability. Further, the scheme provides guarantees to customers in terms of the probability of being blocked (and hence not served) by the closest charging station to their location. Overall, the paper addresses key issues related to the efficient operation, both from the perspective of the power grid and the drivers satisfaction, of a network of charging stations.

AB - In order to increase the penetration of electric vehicles, a network of fast charging stations that can provide drivers with a certain level of quality of service (QoS) is needed. However, given the strain that such a network can exert on the power grid, and the mobility of loads represented by electric vehicles, operating it efficiently is a challenging and complex problem. In this paper, we examine a network of charging stations equipped with an energy storage device and propose a scheme that allocates power to them from the grid, as well as routes customers. We examine three scenarios, gradually increasing their complexity. In the first one, all stations have identical charging capabilities and energy storage devices, draw constant power from the grid and no routing decisions of customers are considered. It represents the current state of affairs and serves as a baseline for evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme. In the second scenario, power to the stations is allocated in an optimal manner from the grid and in addition a certain percentage of customers can be routed to nearby stations. In the final scenario, optimal allocation of both power from the grid and customers to stations is considered. The three scenarios are evaluated using real traffic traces corresponding to weekday rush hour from a large metropolitan area in the US. The results indicate that the proposed scheme offers substantial improvements of performance compared to the current mode of operation; namely, more customers can be served with the same amount of power, thus enabling the station operators to increase their profitability. Further, the scheme provides guarantees to customers in terms of the probability of being blocked (and hence not served) by the closest charging station to their location. Overall, the paper addresses key issues related to the efficient operation, both from the perspective of the power grid and the drivers satisfaction, of a network of charging stations.

KW - electric vehicles

KW - performance evaluation

KW - stochastic charging station model

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84880201971&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/JSAC.2013.130707

DO - 10.1109/JSAC.2013.130707

M3 - Article

VL - 31

SP - 1235

EP - 1246

JO - IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

T2 - IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

JF - IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

SN - 0733-8716

IS - 7

M1 - 6547832

ER -