Effects of lubrication, specimen preparation and tool coating on the friction behavior of commercially pure titanium at elevated temperature

Jacob Aleksander Roszak, Andrzej Rosochowski, Malgorzata Rosochowska

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Titanium forming processes are often limited by severe adhesive wear as a result of poor friction conditions. This can be partially remedied with careful selection of lubricant, billet preparation and tool coating, but the optimal combination of these factors is not known. A full factorial ring compression experiment, with grade 2 commercially pure titanium rings deformed at 300 °C, was conducted to study the effect of each of these factors over three levels. The change in internal diameter was compared to a set of calibration curves generated by an FEA simulation of the process in order to determine the friction coefficient during each trial. A robust statistical analysis methodology was used to isolate and evaluate the effect of varying each factor. The choice of lubricant was found to be the most statistically significant factor by a considerable margin, followed by the method of billet preparation, with tool coating found to be insignificant. Of the lubricants tested, the graphite-based lubricant resulted in the lowest friction, followed by the WS2- and MoS2-based lubricants. Sandblasted billet surfaces resulted in similar friction to as-machined surfaces, whereas those subjected to micro-arc oxidation performed notably worse. For reducing friction during warm forming of titanium, a graphite-based lubricant is therefore recommended, with tool coating and billet surface preparation unlikely to provide significant further improvement.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication24th International Conference on Material Forming
Place of PublicationLiège
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9782870190036
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2021
Event24th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming - Digital Event, Belgium
Duration: 14 Apr 202116 Apr 2021


Conference24th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming
Abbreviated titleESAFORM 2021
Internet address


  • titanium
  • friction
  • lubricant
  • coating
  • ring compression


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