Effects of fluorine substitution on the intermolecular interactions, energetics and packing behaviour of N-benzyl substituted diketopyrrolopyrroles

Jesus Calvo-Castro, Graeme Morris, Alan R. Kennedy, Callum J. McHugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Four novel systematically fluorinated DPPs and their single crystal structures are reported. Structures involving direct fluorination of the DPP core phenyl rings and N-benzyl groups, display 1-dimentional π-π stacking motifs; a characteristic of N-benzyl substitution, where long and short molecular axis displacement is induced by isosteric substitution of phenylic hydrogen atoms for fluorine atoms. This characteristic stacking behaviour is destroyed upon trifluoromethyl substitution at the para position of the core phenyl rings, in one case affording a novel molecular conformation and π-π dimer pair exhibiting a higher intermolecular interaction energy than any other structurally analogous DPP based system reported previously. This crystal structure also exhibits a unique orthogonal association of the π-π dimer pairs along the crystallographic a and b axes, resulting in the formation of a framework that is characterised by well-defined channels perpetuating along the length of the crystallographic c axis. The role of fluorine induced stabilisation and its impact on optoelectronic properties in these systems is identified via analysis of computed intermolecular interactions for all the crystal extracted nearest neighbour dimer pairs and their associated cropped equivalents. Our results clearly reinforce the positive role of benzyl substitution in DPP crystal structures to enhance optoelectronic behaviour. More importantly they demonstrate the significant impact small changes in molecular structure can have on the solid state properties of this molecular motif, particularly when fluorination is involved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2371-2384
Number of pages14
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Volume16
Issue number4
Early online date8 Mar 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2016

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Fluorine
fluorine
Substitution reactions
Dimers
substitutes
Fluorination
fluorination
Crystal structure
dimers
Optoelectronic devices
crystal structure
interactions
Atoms
rings
Molecular structure
Conformations
Hydrogen
hydrogen atoms
molecular structure
Stabilization

Keywords

  • intermolecular interactions
  • organic materials
  • fluorine substitition

Cite this

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title = "Effects of fluorine substitution on the intermolecular interactions, energetics and packing behaviour of N-benzyl substituted diketopyrrolopyrroles",
abstract = "Four novel systematically fluorinated DPPs and their single crystal structures are reported. Structures involving direct fluorination of the DPP core phenyl rings and N-benzyl groups, display 1-dimentional π-π stacking motifs; a characteristic of N-benzyl substitution, where long and short molecular axis displacement is induced by isosteric substitution of phenylic hydrogen atoms for fluorine atoms. This characteristic stacking behaviour is destroyed upon trifluoromethyl substitution at the para position of the core phenyl rings, in one case affording a novel molecular conformation and π-π dimer pair exhibiting a higher intermolecular interaction energy than any other structurally analogous DPP based system reported previously. This crystal structure also exhibits a unique orthogonal association of the π-π dimer pairs along the crystallographic a and b axes, resulting in the formation of a framework that is characterised by well-defined channels perpetuating along the length of the crystallographic c axis. The role of fluorine induced stabilisation and its impact on optoelectronic properties in these systems is identified via analysis of computed intermolecular interactions for all the crystal extracted nearest neighbour dimer pairs and their associated cropped equivalents. Our results clearly reinforce the positive role of benzyl substitution in DPP crystal structures to enhance optoelectronic behaviour. More importantly they demonstrate the significant impact small changes in molecular structure can have on the solid state properties of this molecular motif, particularly when fluorination is involved.",
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Effects of fluorine substitution on the intermolecular interactions, energetics and packing behaviour of N-benzyl substituted diketopyrrolopyrroles. / Calvo-Castro, Jesus; Morris, Graeme; Kennedy, Alan R.; McHugh, Callum J.

In: Crystal Growth and Design, Vol. 16, No. 4, 08.03.2016, p. 2371-2384.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Effects of fluorine substitution on the intermolecular interactions, energetics and packing behaviour of N-benzyl substituted diketopyrrolopyrroles

AU - Calvo-Castro, Jesus

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N2 - Four novel systematically fluorinated DPPs and their single crystal structures are reported. Structures involving direct fluorination of the DPP core phenyl rings and N-benzyl groups, display 1-dimentional π-π stacking motifs; a characteristic of N-benzyl substitution, where long and short molecular axis displacement is induced by isosteric substitution of phenylic hydrogen atoms for fluorine atoms. This characteristic stacking behaviour is destroyed upon trifluoromethyl substitution at the para position of the core phenyl rings, in one case affording a novel molecular conformation and π-π dimer pair exhibiting a higher intermolecular interaction energy than any other structurally analogous DPP based system reported previously. This crystal structure also exhibits a unique orthogonal association of the π-π dimer pairs along the crystallographic a and b axes, resulting in the formation of a framework that is characterised by well-defined channels perpetuating along the length of the crystallographic c axis. The role of fluorine induced stabilisation and its impact on optoelectronic properties in these systems is identified via analysis of computed intermolecular interactions for all the crystal extracted nearest neighbour dimer pairs and their associated cropped equivalents. Our results clearly reinforce the positive role of benzyl substitution in DPP crystal structures to enhance optoelectronic behaviour. More importantly they demonstrate the significant impact small changes in molecular structure can have on the solid state properties of this molecular motif, particularly when fluorination is involved.

AB - Four novel systematically fluorinated DPPs and their single crystal structures are reported. Structures involving direct fluorination of the DPP core phenyl rings and N-benzyl groups, display 1-dimentional π-π stacking motifs; a characteristic of N-benzyl substitution, where long and short molecular axis displacement is induced by isosteric substitution of phenylic hydrogen atoms for fluorine atoms. This characteristic stacking behaviour is destroyed upon trifluoromethyl substitution at the para position of the core phenyl rings, in one case affording a novel molecular conformation and π-π dimer pair exhibiting a higher intermolecular interaction energy than any other structurally analogous DPP based system reported previously. This crystal structure also exhibits a unique orthogonal association of the π-π dimer pairs along the crystallographic a and b axes, resulting in the formation of a framework that is characterised by well-defined channels perpetuating along the length of the crystallographic c axis. The role of fluorine induced stabilisation and its impact on optoelectronic properties in these systems is identified via analysis of computed intermolecular interactions for all the crystal extracted nearest neighbour dimer pairs and their associated cropped equivalents. Our results clearly reinforce the positive role of benzyl substitution in DPP crystal structures to enhance optoelectronic behaviour. More importantly they demonstrate the significant impact small changes in molecular structure can have on the solid state properties of this molecular motif, particularly when fluorination is involved.

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