A study was carried out to investigate effects of crystallographic structure on the machining performance with polycrystalline oxygen free copper (OFC) using a single crystalline diamond (SCD) micro-tool. The SCD micro-tool used in this study fabricated with a focused ion beam (FIB) has a cutting length of around 30 μm on the primary clearance face. It was found that a change in crystallographic orientation resulted in a variation in machining force, chip thickness and shear angle, leading to a change in machined surface integrity. When a micro-size tool traverses within a grain at a machining direction aligned with a particular crystallographic orientation, the work material in front of the machining tool is found to be severely deformed. If the orientation changes to a less favorable orientation, this may lead to a much reduced shear angle, a thicker chip, striation at the chip back, higher machining forces and a degraded machined surface. This study contributes to the understanding of the physics of micro scale mechanical machining (micro-machining).