Effectiveness of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2012/13 end of season results

N Andrews, J McMenamin, H Durnall, J Ellis, A Lackenby, C Robertson, B von Wissmann, S Cottrell, B Smyth, C Moore, R Gunson, M Zambon, D Fleming, R Pebody

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The effectiveness of the 2012/13 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) was assessed using a test-negative case-control study of patients consulting primary care with influenza-like illness in the United Kingdom. Strain characterisation was undertaken on selected isolates. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against confirmed influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B virus infection, adjusted for age, sex, surveillance scheme (i.e. setting) and month of sample collection was 26% (95% confidence interval (CI): -4 to 48), 73% (95% CI: 37 to 89) and 51% (95% CI: 34 to 63) respectively. There was an indication, although not significant, that VE declined by time since vaccination for influenza A(H3N2) (VE 50% within three months, 2% after three months, p=0.25). For influenza A(H3N2) this is the second season of low VE, contributing to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation that the 2013/14 influenza vaccine strain composition be changed to an A(H3N2) virus antigenically like cell-propagated prototype 2012/13 vaccine strain (A/Victoria/361/2011). The lower VE seen for type B is consistent with antigenic drift away from the 2012/13 vaccine strain. The majority of influenza B viruses analysed belong to the genetic clade 2 and were antigenically distinguishable from the 2012/13 vaccine virus B/Wisconsin/1/2010 clade 3. These findings supported the change to the WHO recommended influenza B vaccine component for 2013/14.

LanguageEnglish
Pages5-13
Number of pages9
JournalEurosurveillance
Volume19
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jul 2014

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Influenza Vaccines
Human Influenza
Primary Health Care
Vaccines
Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1
Confidence Intervals
H3N2 Subtype Influenza A Virus
Influenza B virus
H1N1 Subtype Influenza A Virus
United Kingdom
Victoria
Virus Diseases
Case-Control Studies
Vaccination

Keywords

  • adolescent
  • adult
  • aged
  • case-control studies
  • child
  • Great Britain
  • hemagglutination inhibition tests
  • influenza A virus, H1N1 Subtype
  • influenza A virus, H3N2 Subtype
  • influenza B virus
  • influenza vaccines
  • influenza, human
  • primary health care
  • Sentinel Surveillance
  • sequence analysis, DNA
  • treatment outcome
  • vaccination

Cite this

Andrews, N ; McMenamin, J ; Durnall, H ; Ellis, J ; Lackenby, A ; Robertson, C ; von Wissmann, B ; Cottrell, S ; Smyth, B ; Moore, C ; Gunson, R ; Zambon, M ; Fleming, D ; Pebody, R. / Effectiveness of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom : 2012/13 end of season results. In: Eurosurveillance. 2014 ; Vol. 19, No. 27. pp. 5-13.
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title = "Effectiveness of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2012/13 end of season results",
abstract = "The effectiveness of the 2012/13 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) was assessed using a test-negative case-control study of patients consulting primary care with influenza-like illness in the United Kingdom. Strain characterisation was undertaken on selected isolates. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against confirmed influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B virus infection, adjusted for age, sex, surveillance scheme (i.e. setting) and month of sample collection was 26{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval (CI): -4 to 48), 73{\%} (95{\%} CI: 37 to 89) and 51{\%} (95{\%} CI: 34 to 63) respectively. There was an indication, although not significant, that VE declined by time since vaccination for influenza A(H3N2) (VE 50{\%} within three months, 2{\%} after three months, p=0.25). For influenza A(H3N2) this is the second season of low VE, contributing to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation that the 2013/14 influenza vaccine strain composition be changed to an A(H3N2) virus antigenically like cell-propagated prototype 2012/13 vaccine strain (A/Victoria/361/2011). The lower VE seen for type B is consistent with antigenic drift away from the 2012/13 vaccine strain. The majority of influenza B viruses analysed belong to the genetic clade 2 and were antigenically distinguishable from the 2012/13 vaccine virus B/Wisconsin/1/2010 clade 3. These findings supported the change to the WHO recommended influenza B vaccine component for 2013/14.",
keywords = "adolescent, adult, aged, case-control studies, child, Great Britain, hemagglutination inhibition tests, influenza A virus, H1N1 Subtype, influenza A virus, H3N2 Subtype, influenza B virus, influenza vaccines, influenza, human, primary health care, Sentinel Surveillance, sequence analysis, DNA, treatment outcome, vaccination",
author = "N Andrews and J McMenamin and H Durnall and J Ellis and A Lackenby and C Robertson and {von Wissmann}, B and S Cottrell and B Smyth and C Moore and R Gunson and M Zambon and D Fleming and R Pebody",
year = "2014",
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Andrews, N, McMenamin, J, Durnall, H, Ellis, J, Lackenby, A, Robertson, C, von Wissmann, B, Cottrell, S, Smyth, B, Moore, C, Gunson, R, Zambon, M, Fleming, D & Pebody, R 2014, 'Effectiveness of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2012/13 end of season results' Eurosurveillance, vol. 19, no. 27, pp. 5-13.

Effectiveness of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom : 2012/13 end of season results. / Andrews, N; McMenamin, J; Durnall, H; Ellis, J; Lackenby, A; Robertson, C; von Wissmann, B; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Moore, C; Gunson, R; Zambon, M; Fleming, D; Pebody, R.

In: Eurosurveillance, Vol. 19, No. 27, 10.07.2014, p. 5-13.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Andrews, N

AU - McMenamin, J

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AU - Cottrell, S

AU - Smyth, B

AU - Moore, C

AU - Gunson, R

AU - Zambon, M

AU - Fleming, D

AU - Pebody, R

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AB - The effectiveness of the 2012/13 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) was assessed using a test-negative case-control study of patients consulting primary care with influenza-like illness in the United Kingdom. Strain characterisation was undertaken on selected isolates. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against confirmed influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B virus infection, adjusted for age, sex, surveillance scheme (i.e. setting) and month of sample collection was 26% (95% confidence interval (CI): -4 to 48), 73% (95% CI: 37 to 89) and 51% (95% CI: 34 to 63) respectively. There was an indication, although not significant, that VE declined by time since vaccination for influenza A(H3N2) (VE 50% within three months, 2% after three months, p=0.25). For influenza A(H3N2) this is the second season of low VE, contributing to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation that the 2013/14 influenza vaccine strain composition be changed to an A(H3N2) virus antigenically like cell-propagated prototype 2012/13 vaccine strain (A/Victoria/361/2011). The lower VE seen for type B is consistent with antigenic drift away from the 2012/13 vaccine strain. The majority of influenza B viruses analysed belong to the genetic clade 2 and were antigenically distinguishable from the 2012/13 vaccine virus B/Wisconsin/1/2010 clade 3. These findings supported the change to the WHO recommended influenza B vaccine component for 2013/14.

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KW - adult

KW - aged

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KW - influenza A virus, H1N1 Subtype

KW - influenza A virus, H3N2 Subtype

KW - influenza B virus

KW - influenza vaccines

KW - influenza, human

KW - primary health care

KW - Sentinel Surveillance

KW - sequence analysis, DNA

KW - treatment outcome

KW - vaccination

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JF - Eurosurveillance

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