Effect of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-one-flange loading condition - Part I: Tests and finite element analysis

Ying Lian, Md Asraf Uzzaman, James B.P. Lim, Gasser Abdelal, David Nash, Ben Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


Web openings could be used in cold-formed steel beam members, such as wall studs or floor joints, to facilitate ease of services in buildings. In this paper and its companion paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition. The present paper includes a testing programme on web crippling of channel section and material tensile coupons, followed by a numerical study, where the models are firstly validated against the performed experiments. The results of 74 web crippling tests are presented, with 22 tests conducted on channel sections without web openings and 52 tests conducted on channel sections with web openings. In the case of the tests with web openings, the hole was either located centred above the bearing plates or having a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. A non-linear finite element model is described, and the results compared against the laboratory test results; a good agreement between the tests and finite element analyses was obtained in term of both strength and failure modes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-452
Number of pages10
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Early online date25 Aug 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016



  • cold-formed steel
  • web crippling
  • finite element analysis
  • web holes
  • channel section
  • Opening

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