Effect of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-one-flange loading condition - Part I: Tests and finite element analysis

Ying Lian, Md Asraf Uzzaman, James B.P. Lim, Gasser Abdelal, David Nash, Ben Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Web openings could be used in cold-formed steel beam members, such as wall studs or floor joints, to facilitate ease of services in buildings. In this paper and its companion paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition. The present paper includes a testing programme on web crippling of channel section and material tensile coupons, followed by a numerical study, where the models are firstly validated against the performed experiments. The results of 74 web crippling tests are presented, with 22 tests conducted on channel sections without web openings and 52 tests conducted on channel sections with web openings. In the case of the tests with web openings, the hole was either located centred above the bearing plates or having a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. A non-linear finite element model is described, and the results compared against the laboratory test results; a good agreement between the tests and finite element analyses was obtained in term of both strength and failure modes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-452
Number of pages10
JournalThin-Walled Structures
Volume107
Early online date25 Aug 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016

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Bearings (structural)
Flanges
Finite element method
Steel
Failure modes
Testing
Experiments

Keywords

  • cold-formed steel
  • web crippling
  • finite element analysis
  • web holes
  • channel section
  • Opening

Cite this

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title = "Effect of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-one-flange loading condition - Part I: Tests and finite element analysis",
abstract = "Web openings could be used in cold-formed steel beam members, such as wall studs or floor joints, to facilitate ease of services in buildings. In this paper and its companion paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition. The present paper includes a testing programme on web crippling of channel section and material tensile coupons, followed by a numerical study, where the models are firstly validated against the performed experiments. The results of 74 web crippling tests are presented, with 22 tests conducted on channel sections without web openings and 52 tests conducted on channel sections with web openings. In the case of the tests with web openings, the hole was either located centred above the bearing plates or having a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. A non-linear finite element model is described, and the results compared against the laboratory test results; a good agreement between the tests and finite element analyses was obtained in term of both strength and failure modes.",
keywords = "cold-formed steel, web crippling, finite element analysis, web holes, channel section , Opening",
author = "Ying Lian and Uzzaman, {Md Asraf} and Lim, {James B.P.} and Gasser Abdelal and David Nash and Ben Young",
note = "[1] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with offset web holes subjected to interior-two-flange loading, Thin-Walled Structures, 50 (2012) 76-86. [2] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Effect of offset web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-two-flange loading condition, Thin-Walled Structures, 65 (2013) 34-48. [3] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part I: Tests and finite element analysis, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 38-48. [4] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part II: Parametric study and proposed design equations, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 79-87. [5] R.A. LaBoube, W.W. Yu, S.U. Deshmukh, C.A. Uphoff, Crippling capacity of web elements with openings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 125 (1999) 137-141. [6] NAS, North American specification for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, American Iron and Steel Institute, AISI S100-2007, AISI Standard, 2007. [7] W.W. Yu, C.S. Davis, Cold-formed steel members with perforated elements, Journal of the Structural Division, 99 (1973) 2061-2077. [8] K.S. Sivakumaran, K.M. Zielonka, Web crippling strength of thin-walled steel members with web opening, Thin-Walled Structures, 8 (1989) 295-319. [9] F. Zhou, B. Young, Web crippling of aluminium tubes with perforated webs, Engineering Structures, 32 (2010) 1397-1410. [10] P. Natario, N. Silvestre, D. Camotim, Computational modelling of flange crushing in cold-formed steel sections, Thin-Walled Structures, 84 (2014) 393-405. [11] P. Keerthan, M. Mahendran, E. Steau, Experimental study of web crippling behaviour of hollow flange channel beams under two flange load cases, Thin-Walled Structures, 85 (2014) 207-219. [12] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Experimental and finite element analysis research on cold-formed steel lipped channel beams under web crippling, Thin-walled Structures, 87 (2015) 41-52. [13] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Aluminum tubular sections subjected to web crippling, Thin-Walled Structures, 90 (2015) 49-60. [14] Y. Lian, A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, G. Abdelal, D. Nash, B. Young, Effect of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-one-flange loading condition - Part I I: Parametric study and proposed design equations. Submitted to Thin-walled Structures. [15] ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual-Version 6.13-1. ABAQUS Inc., USA, 2013. [16] EN, 10002-1: 2001. Tensile testing of metallic materials. Method of test at ambient temperature, British Standards Institution, 2001. [17] J.B.P. Lim, D.A. Nethercot, Finite element idealisation of a cold-formed steel portal frame, Journal of structural engineering, 130 (2004) 78-94. [18] J.B.P. Lim, D.A. Nethercot, Stiffness prediction for bolted moment-connections between cold-formed steel members, Journal of constructional steel research, 60 (2004) 85-107.",
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Effect of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-one-flange loading condition - Part I: Tests and finite element analysis. / Lian, Ying; Uzzaman, Md Asraf; Lim, James B.P.; Abdelal, Gasser; Nash, David; Young, Ben.

In: Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 107, 01.10.2016, p. 443-452.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-one-flange loading condition - Part I: Tests and finite element analysis

AU - Lian, Ying

AU - Uzzaman, Md Asraf

AU - Lim, James B.P.

AU - Abdelal, Gasser

AU - Nash, David

AU - Young, Ben

N1 - [1] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Web crippling behaviour of cold-formed steel channel sections with offset web holes subjected to interior-two-flange loading, Thin-Walled Structures, 50 (2012) 76-86. [2] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Effect of offset web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-two-flange loading condition, Thin-Walled Structures, 65 (2013) 34-48. [3] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part I: Tests and finite element analysis, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 38-48. [4] A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, D. Nash, J. Rhodes, B. Young, Cold-formed steel sections with web openings subjected to web crippling under two-flange loading conditions-part II: Parametric study and proposed design equations, Thin-Walled Structures, 56 (2012) 79-87. [5] R.A. LaBoube, W.W. Yu, S.U. Deshmukh, C.A. Uphoff, Crippling capacity of web elements with openings, Journal of Structural Engineering, 125 (1999) 137-141. [6] NAS, North American specification for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, American Iron and Steel Institute, AISI S100-2007, AISI Standard, 2007. [7] W.W. Yu, C.S. Davis, Cold-formed steel members with perforated elements, Journal of the Structural Division, 99 (1973) 2061-2077. [8] K.S. Sivakumaran, K.M. Zielonka, Web crippling strength of thin-walled steel members with web opening, Thin-Walled Structures, 8 (1989) 295-319. [9] F. Zhou, B. Young, Web crippling of aluminium tubes with perforated webs, Engineering Structures, 32 (2010) 1397-1410. [10] P. Natario, N. Silvestre, D. Camotim, Computational modelling of flange crushing in cold-formed steel sections, Thin-Walled Structures, 84 (2014) 393-405. [11] P. Keerthan, M. Mahendran, E. Steau, Experimental study of web crippling behaviour of hollow flange channel beams under two flange load cases, Thin-Walled Structures, 85 (2014) 207-219. [12] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Experimental and finite element analysis research on cold-formed steel lipped channel beams under web crippling, Thin-walled Structures, 87 (2015) 41-52. [13] Y. Chen, XX. Chen, CY. Wang, Aluminum tubular sections subjected to web crippling, Thin-Walled Structures, 90 (2015) 49-60. [14] Y. Lian, A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, G. Abdelal, D. Nash, B. Young, Effect of web holes on web crippling strength of cold-formed steel channel sections under end-one-flange loading condition - Part I I: Parametric study and proposed design equations. Submitted to Thin-walled Structures. [15] ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual-Version 6.13-1. ABAQUS Inc., USA, 2013. [16] EN, 10002-1: 2001. Tensile testing of metallic materials. Method of test at ambient temperature, British Standards Institution, 2001. [17] J.B.P. Lim, D.A. Nethercot, Finite element idealisation of a cold-formed steel portal frame, Journal of structural engineering, 130 (2004) 78-94. [18] J.B.P. Lim, D.A. Nethercot, Stiffness prediction for bolted moment-connections between cold-formed steel members, Journal of constructional steel research, 60 (2004) 85-107.

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - Web openings could be used in cold-formed steel beam members, such as wall studs or floor joints, to facilitate ease of services in buildings. In this paper and its companion paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition. The present paper includes a testing programme on web crippling of channel section and material tensile coupons, followed by a numerical study, where the models are firstly validated against the performed experiments. The results of 74 web crippling tests are presented, with 22 tests conducted on channel sections without web openings and 52 tests conducted on channel sections with web openings. In the case of the tests with web openings, the hole was either located centred above the bearing plates or having a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. A non-linear finite element model is described, and the results compared against the laboratory test results; a good agreement between the tests and finite element analyses was obtained in term of both strength and failure modes.

AB - Web openings could be used in cold-formed steel beam members, such as wall studs or floor joints, to facilitate ease of services in buildings. In this paper and its companion paper, a combination of tests and non-linear finite element analyses is used to investigate the effect of such holes on web crippling under end-one-flange (EOF) loading condition. The present paper includes a testing programme on web crippling of channel section and material tensile coupons, followed by a numerical study, where the models are firstly validated against the performed experiments. The results of 74 web crippling tests are presented, with 22 tests conducted on channel sections without web openings and 52 tests conducted on channel sections with web openings. In the case of the tests with web openings, the hole was either located centred above the bearing plates or having a horizontal clear distance to the near edge of the bearing plates. A non-linear finite element model is described, and the results compared against the laboratory test results; a good agreement between the tests and finite element analyses was obtained in term of both strength and failure modes.

KW - cold-formed steel

KW - web crippling

KW - finite element analysis

KW - web holes

KW - channel section

KW - Opening

UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02638231

U2 - 10.1016/j.tws.2016.06.025

DO - 10.1016/j.tws.2016.06.025

M3 - Article

VL - 107

SP - 443

EP - 452

JO - Thin-Walled Structures

JF - Thin-Walled Structures

SN - 0263-8231

ER -