Effect of water on the electrodeposition of copper from a deep eutectic solvent

P. E. Valverde, T. A. Green, S. Roy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study has examined the effect of water on the electrodeposition of copper from a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Initial physiochemical measurements showed that the viscosity and resistivity of the DES decreased with added water in the range 1 - 15 wt%. This reduction in viscosity resulted in an increase in the mass transfer limiting current, without narrowing the electrochemical window or altering the speciation of the copper chloro-complexes. This shows that metal deposition rates can be increased by water additions. The effect of water on the electrochemical kinetics of the Cu(I) and Cu(II) chloro-complexes was also studied. It was found that the kinetics of the Cu(I)/Cu(0) reaction is largely irreversible, while the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple was quasi-reversible. The rate constants for Cu(II)/Cu(I) and Cu(I)/Cu(0) reactions were accelerated by water additions, although the transfer coefficients remained unchanged. The effect of increased deposition rates, electrolyte conductivity and reaction kinetics on deposit uniformity was estimated and subsequently verified by experiments. It was found that, although higher deposition rates could be achieved, the thickness of the deposit was non-uniform since the Wagner numbers remained relatively low.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-712
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Applied Electrochemistry
Issue number6
Early online date9 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2020


  • deep eutectic solvent (DES)
  • electrochemical kinetics
  • conductivity

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  • Student Theses

    Effect of water on copper electrodeposition from water-containing deep eutectic solvents

    Author: Valverde Armas, P. E., 3 May 2019

    Supervisor: Roy, S. (Supervisor) & Green, T. (Supervisor)

    Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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