Effect of torch angle on arc properties and weld pool shape in stationary GTAW

Shahid Parvez, Muhammad Abid, David Nash, H. Fawad, Alexander Galloway

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In this paper, a three dimensional numerical simulation is performed on a stationary arc to study the effect of torch angle in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of SS304 stainless steel. A comparison has been made to investigate 90o and 70o torch angles and analyze the effect on arc and weld pool shape. Current density, heat flux and gas shear stress are calculated in the arc region and are used as input to the workpiece to determine the weld pool. Buoyancy and Marangoni shear also affect the weld pool shape and are taken into account. The computed and experimental results are observed symmetric for 90o torch angle. For 70o torch angle, current density and hence the heat flux due to electron contribution is found the maximum behind and heat flux due to conduction and convection is found the maximum ahead of the electrode tip in the welding direction. This makes the maximum of total heat flux symmetric along the arc center. Heat flux due to conduction and convection decreases as the torch angle decreases resulting in a shallow weld pool. The nonsymmetric “w” shaped weld pool is developed by the combined effect of the gas shear and Marangoni convection. It is found that for 70o torch angle, the weld pool becomes non-symmetric, shallow and wide ahead of the electrode tip in the welding direction. The numerical weld pool shapes are verified through experiments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1268-1277
JournalJournal of Engineering Mechanics
Issue number9
Early online date23 Sep 2012
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2013



  • arc welding
  • GTAW
  • weld geometry
  • torch angle

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