Effect of synthesis conditions on formation pathways of metal organic framework (MOF-5) Crystals

Colin McKinstry, Eddie Cussen, Ashleigh Fletcher, Siddharth Patwardhan, Jan Sefcik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)
177 Downloads (Pure)


Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent a class of nanoporous crystalline materials with far reaching potential in gas storage, catalysis, and medical devices. We investigated the effects of synthesis process parameters on production of MOF-5 from terephthalic acid and zinc nitrate in diethylformamide. Under favorable synthesis conditions, we systematically mapped a solid formation diagram in terms of time and temperature for both stirred and unstirred conditions.
The synthesis of MOF-5 has been previously reported as a straightforward reaction progressing from precursor compounds in solution directly to the final MOF-5 solid phase product. However, we show that the solid phase formation process is far more complex, invariably transferring through metastable intermediate crystalline phases before the final MOF-5 phase is reached, providing new insights into the formation pathways of MOFs. We also identify process parameters suitable for scale-up and continuous manufacturing of high purity MOF-5.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5481-5489
Number of pages9
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2013


  • synthesis conditions
  • formation pathways
  • metal
  • organic framework

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  • Projects

    Royal Society Fellowship for Dr Edmund Cussen

    Cussen, E.

    Royal Society


    Project: Research

    Research Output

    • 42 Citations
    • 1 Article

    Scalable continuous solvothermal synthesis of metal organic framework (MOF-5) crystals

    McKinstry, C., Cathcart, R. J., Cussen, E. J., Fletcher, A. J., Patwardhan, S. V. & Sefcik, J., 1 Feb 2016, In : Chemical Engineering Journal. 285, p. 718-725 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Open Access
  • 45 Citations (Scopus)
    141 Downloads (Pure)

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