Effect of environmental and operational parameters on sequential batch reactor systems in dye degradation

Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty, Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Augustine Chioma Affam, Nasiru Aminu, Sule Abubakar, Azmatullah Noor, Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal, Ibrahim Umaru, Ibrahim Hassan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


1. Issues
Dye containing wastewater not effectively managed is among the major contributors to water contamination. It is considered a major threat to public health and environment. Thus, it must be handled properly before discharging into the environment. This chapter discusses the performance evaluation of sequential batch reactor (SBR) system in managing dyes. It further complied and analyzed the impact of several environmental and operational parameters on the system in dye degradation. The various variables such as cycle time, hydraulic and sludge retention times, aeration, agitation, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, feeding, temperature, hydrodynamic shear force etc are described.
2. Major advances
Due to their complicated structure and synthetic root source, dyes are often regarded as one of the most difficult parts of textile wastewater to process. Environmental contamination emanating from toxic dye processing by dyeing industries continues to be a challenge. All through dye degradation, a variety of methods have been used, with various levels of efficacy, which may be attributable to differences in dye properties, discharge conditions, technical potentialities, regulatory obligations, and financial thoughtfulness. Recently, the usage of SBR in dye degradation, has continuously receive attention from scientists. It is widely preferred in dyes degradation because it is an efficient process. More so, taking advantage of the high SBR versatility, the control parameters can be changed appropriately and the decolorization potential be recovered. Owing to its operational versatility, shock load resistance, and high biomass retention, this chapter emphasized SBR application and efficiency for dye treatment in the context of environmental conservation. The chapter further stressed on the effects of environmental and operational parameters during dyes degradation. In recent decades, dye degradation has been successfully regulated by optimizing a lot of valuable environmental and operational parameters. They assist in the comprehension of bio-flocculation structure, properties, and mechanisms. These optimization strategies for environmental/operational parameters thus, paves the route for the production of fewer by-products. The application of RSM to physicochemical dye degradation processes could result in better design and optimization. Researchers focusing on dye degradation, physicochemical processes, and RSM can find the outcome of this chapter extremely beneficial. Looking at the environmental aspect and considering the high content of hazardous intermediate metabolites found in dyes, SBR system combined with other treatment technologies are more efficient for dye degradation. The content of this chapter is expected to improve readers' fundamental literacy, direct research scholars, and be integrated into upcoming laboratory experiments on SBR systems for dye wastewater treatment.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDye Biodegradation, Mechanisms and Techniques
Subtitle of host publicationRecent Advances
EditorsSubramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Ali Khadir
Place of PublicationSingapore
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages33
ISBN (Electronic)9789811659324
ISBN (Print)9789811659317
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2021


  • dyes
  • degradation
  • sequencing batch reactor
  • environmental parameters
  • operational parameters


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